Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Tafsir (Interpretation) - (Lat.: Interpretation: description, interpretation) in the performance process the musical creativity is interpreted by use of imagination. Despite other arts, every musical work needs an interpretation showing the work and the author. The professionalism of the performer, his worldview, and the effect of the work on the public – if he /she is an outstanding one. In this way, the musical work will be effective remembered well. Based on oral traditions, the manner of composition of a Mugham song is closely related with the quality of personal innovation of the composer and it covers the creation of new variants.


Tagti (Stopping) - it means the stopping points in each hemistiches of the poetry work. Based on the syllable used for the poem, a hemistich may have one, two or even more stopping points. The stopping is used in syllable-based, prosodic and free poems. It is also used in the musical work.


Tasnif - 1. It is the song performed in the traditional music. It is closely related to the modal system and their name in the traditional music. For example Rast song, Shur song, etc. The poetic text of the songs usually os lyrics.
2. In Ashyg literature it relates to lyrics composed by Agh Ashyg, Ashyg Ali and others. In Turkish Ashyg art it is also known as a form of poem. Especially, it has been used by Yinis Emre. Songs are separately written on the basis of Garayli, Qoshma, Tajnis, Divani, and Mukhammas poem forms and then performed.
Hər yana gözük,
İlqarda düzük.
Brilyant üzük,
Gəlir qızımçün.

To keep eye on every side;
To be faithful to the promise;
A ring with diamond gem;
It's coming to my daughter.

The songs are different both from the point of view of form and the context. The love motivation is one of the powerful motivations used in songs. The songs in Ashyg art composed of 3, 4, 5, 6 hemistiches and totally contains 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, etc. pieces.
3. Also there are melodies named Tasnif in Ashyg music.


Tajnis (5-hemistiche poem pieces ) - 1. It is one of forms of lyrics with relatively limited popularity. It is seen both in folkloric and written literature. Tajnis is normally composed of three pieces. The Tajnis rhymes are usually based on pun (paronomasia).
2. This form, which its name has its origin of a poetic form, is performed on general tuning, Qarachi fret, starting from Shah (king) fret and is based on Tajnis (5-hemistiche poem piece).
Geyibdir qəddinə yar alacanı,
At müjkan oxunu, yarala canı,
İstər Ələsgərdən yar ala canı,
Tökəndə zülflərin a yana, yana.

My love has dressed a mixed color,
Shoot me arrow of your eyelashes and hurt me;
My love wishes to take Alaskar's life;
When spreads her hairs on one shoulder.


Tajnis Gerayli - all the hemistiches in Tajnis Gerayli have been written by use of pun (paronomasia) technique. It means that though the words seem same but they have different meanings.
...Düşər bir gün Alı yada,
Rəva bilməz ram al yada.
Ya qaib ol, cəm ol, ya da,
Olsun qeyrət, ar azada.

…May be one day somebody remember Ali;


Tajnis Fret - it means the third gut fret on the fingerboard of Saz (See: orta (middle) fret, Yarim (middle) fret, Karam fret, Urfani fret, Yetim fret).


Takhmis - it is a piece of poem that has five hemistiches just like Mukhammas. In many of cases the poem consists of five pieces. The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd hemistiches are written by the author and the 4th and 5th hemistiches belong to another poet and are kept without any change.


Takhnis - this melody, which relates to the a poetic form, is performed on General tuning, Shah (King) fret based of Grayli poem form.


Tavar Saz - it is middle-sized Saz. Its length is 120 cm. It is the most extensively populated form of Saz, it has fine ringing voice color and timbre. It has 9 strings. The strings are made of metal, and this gives it fine ringing and vibrating tone. The strings are divided to 3 main groups of strings: melodic strings (high pitched strings), tuning strings (bass strings), burdon (accompanying strings) (see: Saz).


Tebil-Jengi Koroghlu (Drum fighting Koroghlu) - it is performed on general tuning and on the basis of Qoshma poem form.


Teessufname (Letter of regret) - the letter of regret has special position in Ashyg art. As it is shown in its name, this type of performance relates the sensation and excitation, purposes and aim that the Ashyg has had. It would be existing in all categories of Ashyg poetry.
Çünki oldun dəyirmançı,
Çağır gəlsin dən, Koroğlu.
Verdin Qırı, aldın Dürü,
Döy başına yan, Koroğlu!

Oh Koroghlu! It seems that you're now a miller;
Then call the people to take their wheat to mill;
You gave Qir (name of his own horse) and took Dur (another horse);
It's the time of regret!


Temp - the performance velocity a musical art work is called temp. temps have three main categories: Slow, Middle and Rapid temps.


Terane (Song) - means melody, song.


Terjibend (Poems with same repeating hemistiches) - the subject of such king of poem will be dedicated to some main subjects like love, beauty, social-philosophic themes. Just like Tarkib Band, it contains few hemistiches with the same subject or text but their rhymes are different. Each piece in this category of poem may contain 8-10 or more hemistiches.


Terkibend (Poem containing repeating hemistiches at the end of each piece with the same rhyme but different words) - it is one of the lyric forms in the oriental literature. The length of the poems is different and has its own specification in each classic form. Each piece contains 6 to 12-14 or more hemistiches. The rhyme in this category may be alike ode or Qazal form of poem and / or all hemistiches have the same rhyme.


Tesdis (Containing six hemistiches) - it is just like Takhmis and is a poem written on the basis of another poet's work. It has some pieces. The first 4 hemistiches are written by the poet and the remaining 2 hemistiches are taken from another poet's work.


Text - any work which is written, as well, any part of a work. Text can be in the printed form through both printing press and stamping, and also in the form of manuscript. Text has an important role in many mushical genres, as well as, Ashyg music.


Texture - (Lat.: factura – literally processing, figuratively structure) it is the basis, essence, technical structure and the composition of music sounding.
Elements of texture - melody, accompaniment, bass, separate sounds, under-sound lines, themes etc. The main types of texture: a) homophonic; b) chord -harmonic; c) polyphonic.


Theme, subject - (Greek: it is the subject matter of negotiation or debate) it means the complete musical structure which is complete from points of view of melodic and forms. It is the main factor of composition, it carries meaning and idea in a musical work for some degree; it has high role in imagination of character of the figures.


Theme - (Greek: thema – the subject of a discussion or talk) a piece of music completed in terms of melody and form and expressing a complete musical idea. It is considered to be the most important factor of composition; it is the carrier of a certain sense or idea in the pieces of music; it plays an important role in the personification of the characteristics features of the character. Every mugham department or corner has specific theme.


Timbre, voice color - (Fr.: Timbre - distinguishing aspect, mark) It means the voice color. Timbre is different coordination and conformity of the overtones.


Tirinqi - see. Arani.


Tone - (Greek: tonos - stress, accent) 1. A voice with a known pitch.
2. The pitch level of two voices with the equal temp. The two half-tone make a full tone.
3. In the ancient meaning it means lad.
4. The main tone of accordion: tension tone, vvinta tone, septima tone.


Tonic - it has been the fixed last step of Ladin and has gathered other steps around it. It is shortly denoted as T.


Top - there are 8-9 Ashygs on the part of skull of saz's arm. There is small stretcher between skull and arm (arm stretcher) and big stretcher on wooden bowl and "chest". And there is bottom stretcher on wooden bowl and bottom side of the chest. Bottom stretcher is also called "comb" ("darag") by Ashygs (see: saz's structure).


Toy (Wedding ceremony) - it is the ceremony dedicated to the wedding of couple characterized by happy event. For example toy qurmaq and toylamaq have been referred to the organization of wedding ceremony by participation of the other people.


Toy Akhiri - see: Ayaq Mukhammas (the bottom Mukhammas).


Toyagasi (The wedding ceremony organizer) - the person who manages the wedding ceremony and issues the instructions.


Tragedy - is one of the types of dramatic works. The nature of the character in the tragedy is opened with the description of desperate situations and hard struggles leading to a disaster. Works in the genre of tragedy occupy a special place in literature and music.


Tradition - elements of social and cultural heritage passing from generation to generation and preserved for a long time by certain society, class or social group. Certain public institutions, rules of behavior, values, ideas, customs, rituals etc. can be tradition. Tradition belongs to various fields of social life. The tradition has special great role in religion and ethnography. Tradition is of great importance in the fields of literature, art and culture (for example, Nizami, Fuzuli traditions etc.). The continuation of traditions in literature and art sometimes can lead to imitation. The forms of different lifestyle, literary and musical creativity and applied art fields being formed in certain ethnographic zones of Azerbaijan have become tradition. The vitality of traditions is in their development by next generations in new historical condition. The advanced features of traditions survive passing from generation to generation and its signs and features that are old and not compatible with new condition are eliminated. The main condition for the development of traditions is the preservation of social wealth through inheritance and addition of new elements coming from new historical conditions to old heritage. Preservation and development of cultural traditions in Azerbaijan is learned as an important issue and is always in the center of attention. As in other fields of art, Ashyg art has also formed and developed on the basis of certain traditions.


Travel literature - it is a work created on the basis of epic genre. In a travel literature, a writer includes its ideas, experiences, countries or places he visited in one or more countries or places, the events he / she was witness, people and places he / she visited, etc.


Trel - (Ital.: Trillare - trill, ring) when is written beside the note, it means that such note should be repeated rapidly an frequently. It is denoted by Tr on top of the note.


Trio - (Ital.: Trio, tre - relating to three)
1. An ensemble composed of three members in vocal music; trest.
2. A musical work composed for three performers each with separate par.
3. The marches, valses, menuets, skersoe written in three separate parts.
In the ancient era, the instrumental musical works were being performed by three performed; the auxiliary parts were being performed by orchestra and the core parts were being performed by three performer for creation of contrast. In this way, they are named trio.


Troubadours - means the composer of poems and their performer by use of violin or other instruments in the medieval era. In this way of performance, any new song is performed by use of a new melody. It has been populated in French during 12th and 13th centuries. Troubadours used different colors and syllables in the poetry forms (tensona, ballada) and work on the folkloric songs composition.


Tuning - it means Tajnis or Urfani tunning.


Turaji - 1. This melody is performed on Urfani tuning, Urfani fret, on the basis of Qoshma poem form.
2. Also there is a dance melody with the same name in Azerbaijani folkloric music.


Tuyuq - it is a form of poem used by Turkish tribes in the medieval era. It resembles to Rubai and includes lyrics with philosophical and meaningful wise themes. In majority of times they are performed in Arzrum Ramal syllable.


Type - identification of the social group, and classification of a known figure for other classifications applicable to the human kind.