Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Part - 1. Play forming the range and having specific tempo, tune and mood. It is called with special name by the composer and noted with number for its place in range or for tempo indicator. For example, the first part of sonata, allegro. 2. The section of music form which is relatively completed and differs in terms of tune and thematic aspects. This feature is characteristic for Ashyg music.


Pashakochdu (The migration of Pasha) - it relates to the name of the Ashyg. It is performed on Urfani tuning, in the form of Gerayli poem form. Its scale is normally 6/8.


Pause (rest) - (Greek: – pause). 1. It is provisional distance in the music performance. It is used in different part of the work in any of the voices.
2. The signs that denote the length of the pause (rest); the pause time equals to the length of music notes.
Pause pauses (rests): whole rest, half rest, quarter rest, eighth rest, etc.


Pen-name - it is the name given to author besides his own name. This name is usually related to any characteristic feature, his appearance or his generation, ancestors and profession of the writer or author. For example, the pen–name of the author of Firdovsi - "Shahname" work is Abulgasim. These features is mostly observed in Ashygs.


Performer - conductor, singer, pianist, violinist and players of other musical instruments, playing pieces of music, reflect the mood, idea and thoughts of composer that he wishes to deliver to audience with his work. Performing Ashygs - singers entering to Ashyg music art only as performers are called performing Ashygs. So, they don't create any poem or music by themselves, they only sing Ashyg melodies or eposes.


Personage, Characters - means the figures taking part in an artistic and musical scene work. In majority of times, the term of personage refers to the second-level roles in a story; the main figures and roles are usually named hero.


Peshrov (Starting story) - 1. It is an interesting story narrated to the audiences before start of the main story for lifting mood among them. For example, I passed the Kur river with ant and ate dovgha (a kind of fluid starter made of yoghurt and vegetables) with pitchfork but never heard such a lie, etc.
2. Also there is a melody in Ashyg music called Pishrov; it means entrance, pioneer, front and front man. It is an introductory music piece performed before each mugham or musical modal system. The narration in Shivan Ashyg style starts with a Pishrov. Some of Ashyg melodies of Shirvan Ashyg style are: Eyvaz Pishrov, Ibrahim Pishrov, etc.


Phrase - (Greek: phrasis – expression) it is explained as "the word" of music being a relatively completed musical part of theme, melody.
Every completed idea of music is divided into phrases. Phrase is marked with the sign of caesura.
Piyada Koroghlu - 1. It is a melody in Ashyg art; it is performed in Qarachi tuning and Shah (king) gut fret on the basis of Gerayli poem form.
2. There is also a folklore song with the same name relating to the heroes.
Plectrum, pick - it is the plectrum (pick) used for playing Saz and made of cherry bark.


Poem - it means the expression of though by use of rhythmic words with rhymes. The poem has a known subject and is written in a rhythmic form in the form of hemistiches with rhymes. Despite the prose, the last word(s) of poem hemistiches form rhyme with each other.


Poem meter - it means the rules of correct arrangement of stressed or unstressed syllables in a poem. The meter is one of the main aspects that give beauty and harmony to the poem. There are two main meters in Azerbaijani poetry: syllabic meter and prosody meter. It is widely used in Ashyg art. The folkloric Azerbaijani poetry works are mainly created on the basis of syllabic meter. Among Azerbaijani classic poets Vidadi, Vaqif, Zakir and others have written the majority of their poems in syllabic meter. The syllabic meter is classed as different categories based on the number of syllables used in each hemistich. The Azerbaijani poem has been created from one syllable to twenty syllables. The hemistiches with 7, 8, 11 and 14 syllables are more common in Azerbaijani poem. The prosody meter has been created and organized for the first time in Iraqi city of Basra in 8th century by Arabic Poet and Scientist, Khalil ibn Ahmad for Arabic poem and then used in some Muslim communities in the eastern world. The Prosody meter has 19 prosodic elements: Hazaj, Ta'vil, Kamil, Sari', Munsariħ, Mutaqārib, etc. Among them Ta'vil, Kamil and some other are merely used in Arabic poem. Jadil, Qarib, etc. despite the fact that there is neoumerous Arab and Persian words in Azerbaijani poems based on prosody meter and this led it into a high complexity, some poets like Fuzuli and Sabir successfully overcame to this complexity and could write poetry workds easily understood by the people. They proved that a poet with high knowledge is capable to write poetry works on the basis of prosody meter and they enriched the Azerbaijni poetry art by adding this meter. The free verses are a type of veses free from this meter. But it does not mean that such category of poems have no rule. The free verses have also their own rhythm, smoothness, and rhyme rules. Among Azerbaijani poets S. Vurghun, S. Rustam, R. Rza and others have written some works in this way. (See Prosody, Syllable meter).


Poetics - it is the science of poetry, literary theory, and is one of the oldest divisions of literary criticism. Aristotle's Poetics, Horatius's work on "Poetry" and or Pizonlar school" all are samples of poetics. The artistic style of the writer and all artistic descriptive means used by him / her also called poetics. Examples are poetics of Fuzuli and Sabir poetics.


Poetry - it means the authors of poem in Near East region including in Azerbaijani people. In the Central Asia the work Shair (Poet), in addition to its original meaning, is also referred to minstrels who narrate the story of heroes and loves.


Position - (Lat.: Pozitio - position) In general, it means the position of fingers without any changing in the position of hands for the purpose of easy sounding the instrument. A Saz with 20 gut frets has 9 position. The positions are located on the fingerboard and designed for the left hand. Indeed the position is considered to make the trainee's hand movement easier.


Powerful sense - it means the idea and sense forms the core and essence of an artistic work. The Paphos of a work is the idea filled all writer's being and is a powerful sense that is reflected a part of the work created by him / her and forms the core of the whole of the work.


Prose - the literary creation is classed as two categories: poetry and prose. The poetry and prose two different categories of writing art from the point of view of subject, and their position on the history of literature. In the medieval era and 19th century, a lot of works have been written in the east including in Azerbaijan in prose form.