Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Sahibi - it is a melody created by Ashyg Imran Hasanov. It is performed on General tuning, Qarachi tuning, and istarted from Sah (king) and Bash gut fret and performed on the basis of Qoshma poem form.


Sallama bayati - it is a melody created by Ashyg Imran. It is performed on Becha fret based on Bayati poem. Its main aim is performing different Bayati poems.


Sallama Gerayli - the first form of Sallama Gerayli melody is seen in the performance of outstanding Ashyg Mulla Cuma living end of 19th and early 20th century.


Sallama Karami - its other name is Qurbati Karami. This melody is a part of well known Azerbaijani Story, Asli and Karam. It is performed on general tuning, Divani fret and on the basis of Qoshma peom form.


Samandari - this melody has its name originated from the name of Ashyg Samandar. It is started from Urfani tuning, Qarachi fret and Shah (King) fret and performed.


Saqinama (Butler's poem) - it is one of lyric genres in classic oriental poem including in Azerbaijan. Those who composed ode or sonnet, have also expressed some of their socio-philosophical thought and sensation in the form of Saqinama (butler's poem). The words used in this genre of poem relates to the waiter fills the glass (butler). The subject of majority of Saqinama (butler's poem) poems relates to life love, love and beauty.


Sarabi - this melody is performed on Misir (Egypt) tuning, from Becha fret.


Sarayı - it is also called Shah Sarayi (the King's Palace). It is performed on general tuning, Shah (king) and Bash fret. Ashyg Qurbani is known as creator of this melody.


Sarbani - see. Bazirgani.


Saritel - originally it is called Bash Saritel and / or Orta Saritel. It is performed on Urfani tuning, Urfani fret, and based on Gerayli poem form. Ashyg Amrah is known as creator of this melody.


Sari Torpaq - (the yellow land) 1. It is also called Tabrizi. It is performed on Shah (king) and Bash fret based on Qoshma poem format.
2. There is also a dance melody with the same name, Saritorpaq.


Satire - it is an exposing poem. It is found in all poetic forms, mostly in goshma. It is one of the types of satire used in classical and Ashyg poetry.


Saz - the Saz instrument .
It is a stringed Azerbaijani music instrument. It belongs to Ud family based on its form and structure, it has a pear-shaped bowl and long arm (fingerboard). A number of 10-14 gut frets are attached on its fingerboard. Each of the main gut frets have their own name: Bash fret, Orta (middle) fret, Shah (king) fret, Ayaq (bottom) fret and Becha fret. Saz contains 8-10 strings. The tunings of these strings is very interesting and original. The Saz strings are grouped as 3 voice groups: Among them the three first 3-strings of group I with the same rhythm (unison) are tuned with the same unison (at I octave - "Re" note); the couple strings forming 2nd group of strings are tuned one octave below the 1st group ("Sol" note of the small octave) and, finally, the 3-string of 3rd group are tuned one octave above the 2nd group, the 1st string is tuned at "do" note of first octave. In majority of cases the strings are tuned one tone bass, as a result, the first 3-string are tuned at "Do", the second couple of strings are tuned at "Fa", the third 3-string are tuned at "Si bemol" tone. The Saz instrument player has to simultaneously strum all the strings. It means the main fourth and fifth melodic line and is always rapidly sounded and creates a harmonic context. The Saz has very fine timbre. During the medieval era our classic poets have described how the saz voice has opened its way to the people's heart. Saz has been used the main instrument accompanying Ashyg art since ancient up to now. Saz instrument is classed as three categories based on their size and number of their strings and frets: 1. Jura (small) Saz, 2. Ana (mother) Saz, and 3. Tavar Saz (Saz used in the battlefield). (see Cura, Tavar and Ana Saz).


Saz structure:
Ashiqlar = Tuning keys (pegs)
Kalla = Head
Kichik kharak = Little stretcher
Kharak arkhasi = Stretcher back
Parda duymalari = Divide knots
Pardalar = Divides
Qol = arm
Becha = Cockerel
Qabirqalar = ribs
Chanaq = bowl
Simlar = Strings
Sina = Breast
Boyuk kharak = Big stretcher


Saz diapason - the Saz diapason is from small octave of "Si bemol" up to 2nd octave of "Sol".


Saz gut frets - 0: empty or open string (bottom string), I fret, half fret – II fret – Bash fret (Bash Divani, Bash Mukhammas fret), III fret Gul fret (above Re diez below Mi bemol), IV fret: Orta (middle) fret (Tajnis, Urfani fret), V fret: Misri fret (half fret), VI fret: Shah (king) fret, VII fret: half fret, VIII fret: Divani fret (Jukhuru fret); IX fret: Choban Bayati fret; XII fret: half fret; XIII fret: Becha fret, XIV fret: half fret; XV fret: high pitched Bash fret; XVI fret: high pitch of Orta (middle) fret; XVII fret: half fret of chest; XVIII fret: Shah (king) fret of chest, XIX fret: half fret of chest; XX fret: the last fret.


Saz structure - see. Kalla, Chanaq, Qol (head, bowl, arm (infgerboard)).


Sazande (Instrument player, musician) - performer, musician, one who plays a musical instrument
School - see: Ashyg school.


Sentence - the smallest music structure and is finalized in some cadence.


Sequence - (Lat.: Sequento – one comes afterwards, the follower) 1. It is the melodic part in a harmonic work and / or repetition of harmonic cycle in a new peak.
2. One of the monodies of the medieval era; the most famous sequences are: "Dies Irae", "Stabat Mater" which are lyric church songs performed in the medieval era.


Shabeh - it means a religious-historical theatre performed in an open area. In old times, Ta'zi'ya is also called "yug". The people with special skills known as yugchu (yug performers) had being narrating the life story of heroes accompanied by Qopuz (the old form of Saz), then a passion is performed about the life of the hero causing cry of the audiences. Sometimes were being prepared special poetry dedicated for such events.


Shah kok (Shah Tuning) - it means the general tuning (see: the tuning of Saz).


Shah parda (Shah fret) - it is the forth gut fret on the fingerboard of Saz. It has the main effect on structure of gut fret formation. Ashygs name it the forth fret in all sections.


Shahnameh (epopee) - it is the poem and prose collection containing the myths, epic stories and historical events of Iranian people. The most outstanding one is Firdowsi's Shahnameh (Epopee).


Shahsevani (relating to Shahsevan tribe) - it relates to one of ethnographical groups of Azerbaijan – Shahsavans. Shahsevans had been settled for the first time in Southern Azerbaijan between Savalan (Sabalan) mountain and Qarasu River. Fatali Shah caused the migration of a part of Shahsevans to Quba region. Also Shahsevani dance has been created by this tribe. Since it has a heavy mood, it is performed by old people.


Shaman - originaly Kam or Qam and is a ritual performance. The list of works of Shamans contains the skill to write a poem, narrate a myth, to manage a session, to perform an elegy in different fields including literary, religious and mythology.


Shamshiri - it is a melody performed in Shah and Bash fret, performed on the basis of Qoshma poem form.


Shaqayi Gerayli - its other names are Kurdu Gerayli, Iran Gerayli. It is a melody created by Abbas Tufarqanli and is performed on the basis of Gerayli.


Sharili - it is divided to heavy and light Sharili forms. This melody is performed on General tuning and Shah (King) fret.


Shashangi - this melody has been created by Ashyg Bilal; the melody is performed on Shah (King) fret on the basis of Gerayli poem form. There are four forms of Shashangi: Bash (top) Shashangi, Orta (middle) Shashangi, Ayaq (bottom) Shashangi and Gullu Shashangi.


Shayird (Student, trainee) - it means student, trainee.


Shikasta (Broken) - (as a word, it means broken, fractured, defeated). They are rhythmic mughams in Segah modal system. Its measuring is 2/4. It has several types: Qarabagh (Karabakh) Shikasta, Kasma Shikasta, Shirvan Shikasta, etc.


Shikasta fret - it means the 7th fret on Saz fingerboard (arm). (see: Bayati fret).


Shirgha - they are auxiliary poetic additions. Despite gul rhymes, Shirgha is not used between the hemistiches rather they are used between the pieces of poem. Shirgha is 2-hemistich rhythmic additional piece. Since it is used as pair of hemistiches, they are sometimes called as Cutlama. Shirgha is mainly relating to Gerayli form.


Shirvan Ashyg School - see: Ashyg Schools.


Shirvan Shikasta - it is one of Shikasta rhythmic mughams. It relates to Shirvan Ashyg School and is one of the important melodies of Shikasta genre.


Singing with lower tones - in Ashyg and Mugham art, it is a word used for reflecting the singer's experience; in lower registers, sometimes, it means performing the music with lower tone by the vocalist.


Solo - (Ital.: solo, Lat.: Solus - solo, single, unique) it means the independent performance of a performer. The solo performing of instruments and the vocalist's performance is widely used and is a common tradition in mugham traditionnal music art. The solo performance of the vocalist is highly important in mugham art and Tar and Kamancha have also solo performance in different parts of the performance.


Soloist - (Ital.: word - solista) means the solo performer including a vocalist or player of an instrument; also means the performance of the main instruments in an ensemble (including in whole of the performance or the part of its solo performance). In mugham art, the soloist vocalist is accompanied by ensemble or instrument players' group.


Sovdagarı - see: Bazirgani (trade).


Staff - it means the five parallel horizontal lines on which the music notes are written. The lines are counted from down to top (1st line, 2nd line, 3rd line, 4th line and 5th line). The line denotes the pitch.
On a note line, the notes are written: a) on the lines; b) between the lines; c) over the upper line; and d) under the bottom line. In addition, the additional lines could be used above or below the five-line.
The absolute pitch of each line and its octave is indicated by the placement of a clef symbol at the appropriate vertical position on the left-hand side of the staff. The alteration marks are used for accurate determination of the pitch.


Story - it means the imagination a series of life events with logical sequence and succession each relating to other one which form the immediate theme of a epic, lyric-epic or dramatic of the work.


String - 1. It is the fibers made of copper or other materials used in the majority of oriental musical instrument which produced the voice as a result of plectrum plunk on it. It forms the main part of instruments like: tar, saz, ud, kamancha, rubab, etc.


String instruments - are those instruments that the string forms their main part and are divided into plucking, bowing, and key instruments.


Strings of Saz - the Azerbaijani Ashygs mainly use eight or nine instruments. Based on their location on the sound box (bowl) the strings are classed as follows: 1. Lower strings, 2. Middle strings, 3. Upper strings.


Sultani - it is a melody created by Ashyg Shelni. It is performed on general tuning, Qarachi tuning, and is absed on Qoshma poem form.


Surutma Koroghlu - the other name for this melody is Koroghlu Yerishi (going in Koroghlu's way). It is one of set of Koroghlu melodies which is performed in Misri tuning, Misri fret, based on Gerayli poem form.


Susanbari - it also is sometimes named Bash Khanim and / or Ayaq Jalili. This melody, which has been created by Agh Ashyg, is performed starting from Shah and Chukhuroba frets by use of Qoshma and Gerayli poem form.


Syllabic verse - verse based on the change of rhythmic parts – strokes in a poem. Generally, it is the poetic verse of Turkic-speaking peoples, including the Azerbaijani people. Syllabic verse was used in the folk poetry (bayati, goshma, gerayli etc.) and in the creativity of Shah Ismail Khatai, Yunus Imra, M.P.Vagif and other poets writing in the style of folk poetry (see: verse).
This verse has the forms of 7, 8, 11, 15 and 16 –syllables in Azerbaijan's folk poetry, as well as, Ashyg poetry. As syllabic verse is mostly related to the rules of language, it differs from aruz verse which is absolutely based on the rules of verse with its dynamism and tendency towards development and enrichment.