Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Dada - 1. A term said by addressing to respected elders, consultants and connoisseurs among people. 2. Name given to master Ashyg among people since ancient times (see: master Ashygs) .


Daghistani - one of the ancient melodies in the Ashyg creativity.


Dali Koroghlu - this melody from "Koroghlu" series is played based on the form of poetry of goshma in General tune, Garachi and Shah parda tunes.


Dance - it has been a term used for play or theatre during Caliphate era. The term is also used nowadays and has some other forms of pronunciation including Raqis and Raks.


Darbandi - it is related with the name of town in Daghistan. It is played based on the form of poetry of "gerayli" starting from Shah parda, general tune. The melody of folk song "Gachag Nabi" is based on this tune.


Dastan (Epos) - a large genre of Azerbaijani folk literature in volume. The genre was called by various terms in several periods: "boy (part of a poem)", "narration", "gissa", "story", "tale". All nations whose folk literature is developed have created their national eposes and reflected a part of their history, as well, the life of famous heroes, poets and others full of noteworthy events and adventures in these eposes. The eposes "Igor's regiment" in Russia, "Siegfried" in Germany, "Tristan and Isolde" in France, "Manas" in Kyrgyzstan are famous and widespread. Azerbaijani eposes are divided into three types for their content: 1. Heroic eposes (epic saga), ("Koroghlu"); 2. Love eposes (lyrical epic), ("Leyli and Majnun", "Asli and Karam", "Abbas and Gulgaz"); 3. Family and domestic eposes.


Dastani - this melody which was created by Shamkirli Huseyn is sometimes called as 'Huseyni". It is play based on the form of poetry of goshma, starting from Urfani tune and Urfani parda and it is in the spirit of "gozallama" (beautification).


Dastanchi (Narrator) - performing Ashyg holding epos assemblies. A master who knows many epics.


Deck - (Germ.: decke - lid) top and bottom boards of the body of stringed instruments, the face/surface of the instrument.


Dedication - note given in the beginning of the artistic work and denoting for what or in whose honor that work is written. Sometimes, it is in the form of verse. J.Mammadguluzade dedicated the story "Gurbanali bey" to Gogol. There are also such examples in music.


Demkesh - musician accompanying by extending the basic tone of the melody played by zourna player (master).


Demsaz - the continuation of the basic tone according to the played melody tune (pitch) by other musician.


Dervish - Sufi missionaries in the Middle Ages. Singer and musician, visiting villages and towns, showing "one player's performance" demonstrating performances such as storytelling assembly, "snake – scorpion play", "gozbaghi", soothsaying, giving gifts, taking gifts, "buta" etc.


Deyishma (kind of poem composed by Ashygs) - one of the most widespread forms of Ashyg's competition. "Deyishma" is usually consists of some parts. Each subsequent part sounds more intense and more interesting than the part preceding it. The culmination of "deyishma" as of drama is the part of "gifilband" and it is revealed that how deep knowledge and extensive information Ashyg obtains in this field. "Deyishma" is characterized by consistent change of music rhyme 2/4 with 6/8. There are two or more performers in "deyishma". Sometimes, poet takes a work of other poet and creates poem in the form of "deyishma" by replying paragraph after paragraph. "Deyishma" is more widespread in Ashyg art and definitely accompanied by music. In the old days, someone who "didn't allow" Ashyg to speak more by answering all his poems among the participants, he would be considered the winner and his reputation would increase further. The "loser's" giving his saz to "winner" was one of the conditions of "deyishma". "Deyishma" doesn't only refer to Azerbaijani Ashygs, but also to other folk artists. It was a kind of craze to hold such competitions among Meistersingers in Germany, troubadours in France and others in the Middle Ages (see: Meistersingers, troubadours) .


Dialogue - 1. Two or more people talking to each – other in literary work. The dialogue of participants in dramatic work is one of the main literary means used for the creation of image and character. Dramatic works are mainly built on dialogues. Especially, literary works written in the spoken form are called dialogue. 2. The sequence of melodic phrases with the structure of question and answer, performed with two instrument or two sounds. Dialogue in the style of question and answer is built in Ashygs' "deyishma".


Diapason - (Greek: dia pason - chordon) The full volume of the sequence of musical tones belonging to one instrument or sound over all strings.


Diesis - (Greek: diesis – raise) the sign of raising the voice by semitone ; it is shown before note or in key; it is said after the name of note: do – dieses, fa diesis etc. It is noted with syllable in marking notes with letter: dis – re –diesis, gis – sol – diesis etc. (see: alteration, tune).



Dildonmaz gerayli - there is the proximity of use of compatible sounds between "dildonmaz gerayli" and "dildonmaz tajnis" as of origin in certain degree. However, dildonmaz gerayli draws attention as the most ancient form of use of sound and word complexes and it gives grounds to say that dildonmaz tajnis is formed based on it. We present a perfect example of it in Ashyg Alasgar's creativity:
Əxi, biya, biya, bequ
Bequ, biqof, ağa, bax,bax.
Həyyi, həggü, hakim sənsən,
Həyyə bax, bu bağa bax, bax.

Ekhi, biya, biya, begu
Begu, bigof, agha, look, look!
Heyyi, heggu, you're the dominant,
Hey look, look at this garden, look!


Dilgami - this melody created by Ashyg Yahya bey Dilgam is played based on the form of poetry of goshma, starting from Dilgam tune, Main and Dilgam parda.


Dilgami koku (Dilgam tune) - the first tune of saz and it is related with the name of Dilgami melody established on that tune. This tune is also called "Yanig Karami" (see: Dilgami).


Distich - the pair of hemistiches of the works written in the poetic forms of the Middle East people, such as, ghazal, gasida (ode), masnavi etc., which are close to each other by their content. The distich has to contain a finished idea. Depending on a form by which the poem has been written, the hemistiches may or not be rhymed (see: ghazal, masnavi, gaside).


Divani parda - the sixth parda in the arm of saz. This term is used by all Ashygs.


Divan - the collection of works of a poet in the Eastern countries. For example, "Divani – hekim Nizami Ganjavi", "Divani- Movlana Fuzuli Baghdadi" etc. Works in divan are usually compiled as follows: firstly, "munajat", then "nat" and then "geside, gezel, terjibend, terkibbend, murebbes, mukhammas, museddes, saginame etc.".


Divani - a form of poetry consisting of 4 lines used in folk art, especially Ashyg creativity and sometimes in written literature. It is played with the music. There are 15 syllables in each line. Sometimes, lines are divided into two parts in conformity with the music and this division increases the harmony and playfulness of the poem. Ashyg poem "Divani" is in the moral and didactic spirit in most cases and in the exuberant, festive, fighting spirit in some cases in content. As Divani is considered to be the anthem of Ashyg poem in Ashyg literature, all Ashyg meetings and "dastan" nights begin with divani as an established tradition. Divani is also called the door of meeting. There is such a saying:
Aşıq məclisinin əvvəli nə, axırı nə?
Ustad məclisinin əvvəli divani, sonu duvaqqapmadır.

What is beginning, what is the end of Ashyg meeting?
The beginning of master's meeting is divani and
the end of it is "duvaggapma".


Dodagdaymaz - 1. A peculiar play performed in Ashyg meetings. 2. One of the forms of lyrical poem in Ashyg poetry. Most of the time, it is created in the form of goshma. That's, when we read such poems, lips don't touch each – other:
Qışda dağlar ağ geyinər, yaz qara,
Sağ dəstinlə ağ kağıza yaz qara.
Əsər yellər, qəhr eləyər yaz qara,
Daşar çaylar, gələr daşlar çataçat.
(Aşıq Ələsgər)

Mountains wear white in winters, spring black,
Write black on white paper with right side,
Winds blow, destroy, spring black,
Rivers overflow, bring stones, reach scarcely.
(Ashyg Alasgar)


Dodagdaymaz tajnis - Master Ashygs use such vowels and consonants that they are not lip rounding vowels and consonants for their place of use. This is the less used form in Ashyg poetry. Ashyg Alasgar and Ashyg Huseyn Bozalganli used this form of poetry more.
Qeyz eyləyər, çən çəkilər dağlara,
Qəhrindən selləri ay eylər qıj-qıj.
Qarşı gəlsə, həsrət çəkən yar yara,
Ağlı çaşar, könlü ay eylər qıj-qıj.

Being fury, mist on the mountains,
Keep off floods due to its sorrow, gij-gij,
If it goes against the wistful lover,
Then, it goes astray, its heart grieves, gij- gij.


Dolhijrani - this melody starts from Shah parda in Garachi tune.


Dosheme Koroghlu - Its other name is "Sari torpag" (literally, "yellow land"). This Ashyg melody in the spirit of "gozallama" (beautification) from the series of "Koroghlu" is played based on the form of poetry of goshma starting from Shah parda in General and Garachi tunes.


Double bekar - double natural; a sign cancelling double diesis or double bemol; sometimes ordinary natural sign is used instead of double natural sign.


Double bemol - double bemol; a sign denoting the detraction of voice by two semi - tone (whole tone). It is said after the name of note (for example, LA double bemol), and shown with the sign – in note writing.


Double diesis - double diesis; a sign denoting the increase of voice by two semi-tone (whole tone). It is said after the name of note (for example, F double diesis), and shown with the sign - x in note writing.


Dubeydi gaytaghi - it has the names of "Haja Dubeydi", "Gaytarma Dubeydi". They say that its first examples were found in the creativity of Ashyg Zulfugar.


Dubeyt - the form of lyric poetry consisting of two couplets in Near and Middle Eastern literature. It is assumed to be formed from bayati taking into consideration its creation by adding the chorus of one line consisting of "takrir". Dubeyt has also been used in Azerbaijani Ashyg poetry.


Dubeyti - (a pair of couplet) Its other name is "Iran's dubeyti", "Koroghlu's dubeyti". It is played based on Gerayli starting from Misri parda in Misri tune.


Duet - (Germ.: duett, Lat.: duo - two) Ensemble consisting of two performers – singer or musician. Work composed for two singers; each singer has specific party. Or the performance of poems with the same "radif" (word repeated at the end of each couplet) by two Ashygs.


Durakhani - this melody created by Ashyg Durkhan is played based on goshmas starting from Shah parda in general tune.


Durgu (Pause) - pause between words in the lines of a poem. Pause divides the line having certain rhythm into two or sometimes three parts. Depending on the pecularities of national language in which the poem is written, pause is formed in several ways:


Duvaggapma - (see: "ayag mukhammas") the traditional singing glorifiing the wedding of two lovers reunited with each – other is also called by this name being played at the end of Dastan meetings.


Dynamic signs (dynamics) - are the indicators used for weak and strong sounding of some sounds or certain music line in the piece of music. Piano, pianissimo, forte, fortissimo, crescendo, diminuendo.