Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people to his historical past and culture.
Abdal dili (language "Abdal") - a common name given to the conventional words and expressions used by players to understand each other and to keep confidential this information. This distinctive dialect is recognized popularly as "oyunchu agzi" (The player's mouth), "qayishdili" (strap language) and "qurd dili" (wolf language). This distinctive accent, flowing from the Middle Asia folk music art is used sometimes by Garabagh, Ganja, Gadabay and Tovuz ashyg's to share some ideas between them.
Absolute pitch (or perfect pitch) - (Ital.: absolutus – perfect) the ability to identify by hearing and determine the exact height of the sound for yourself. The existence of absolute pitch is not important for musician, but it helps his/ her professional development.
Accidentals (changeability) - mean an increase or decrease of any step in the order of voice of the harmony (scale) in a quarter, semitone or a ton. The accidentals are as follows: sharp, flat, natural, double sharp, double flat (see: sharp, flat, natural, double sharp and so on).
Achig kok (Open tune) - or tune of "Bayram" (see: kok - tune).
Ag bulagi - ashyg melody, the second name is "Imran gozellemesi" ("beautification").
This melody has been created by ashyg Imran Hasanov. Referring to the tune of Urfani it begins from the shah fret (basic fret). It is performed with goshma (a form of an Azerbaijani poem).
Agir sherili - is a melody related to the geographical location. It is performed on the basic fret referring to the common and dilgam tunes.
Ahmadi Karami - one of melodies related to Borchali's Ashyg environ-ment. It is other name of "Karam beautification". In fact, Borchali's Ashygs use this expression at the end of each couplet as an earring: "Ahmadi Karam, don't bring, I'll give, my darling" etc.
Ajam - means "non -Arab, strange".
Alasgari - this melody created by Ashyg Hagverdi Taliboghlu is played based on the form of poetry of gerayli from "Shah parda".
Alif-lam - poetic form, this form of poetry is sometimes formed on "gifilband" (a kind of Azeri Ashyg poems). So, gifilband is formed with the help of either the word itself or its initial letters used in the poem in the form of Alif – lam. Ashygs such as Ashyg Alasgar, Molla Juma, Huseyn Javan actively used this form of poetry:
Əlif əlin ver əlimə, gedək bizim ellərə. qız!
Bey baxıb güvənirəm, üzündəki tellərə, qız!
Tey tamam tərifini, mən yayaram dillərə, qız!
Cüm camalın oxşayır, təzə açan güllərə, qız!
Hey hara sonasısan, uçub qondun göllərə, qız!
Alif give me your hand, let's go to our lands!
I trust you looking at hairs on your face!
I'll spread all your praise to all nations!
Your beautiful face looks like fresh flower!
Hey, from where have you come and lighted this lake!
Alif-lam gerayli - it is rarely found in Ashyg literature. As in goshma alif – lam, "alif –lam gerayli" also results in specific meaning of the arrangement of letters used in lines. This kind of poems can be gifilband or in the point of opening meaning by itself.
Arif bu elmə bələtdi.
Sey-sabitdi doğru yola,
Cim-ucadı, bax calala,
Münkir ondan xəcalətdi.
Alif – God in the beginning,
is the evidence of unity.
It is alone, single,
Wiseman is aware of this science.
It is stable for right way,
Look this magnificence,
It is so kind for honest,
Heretic is embarrassed.
Alteration - (Lat.: Alterate - changing) means an increase or decrease of a sound in a semitone or a tone without changing its name.
The alteration signs are: sharp, flat, natural, double-sharp, double-flat (see: sharp, flat, natural).
The alteration signs are put on:
a) before the note to which they are belonging; they are called signs met by chance, they are true only until the end of the square in which the note was written.
b) after the key, in the beginning of the note line; they are called the key signs, are true in all octaves until the end of the play or until hanging of signs.
Ambusur - (Fr.: Embouchure – bouche - mouth) 1. The part of the instrument that is taken into the mouth; a place where air is blown out into the instrument by a musician; 2. Mouthpiece - the way in which a player applies their mouth to the mouthpiece of a brass or wind instrument, especially as it affects the production of the sound.
Amplitude - (Lat.: Amplitude – quantity, capacity) the maximum extent of a vibration or oscillation, measured from the position of equilibrium, volume of movement, power of a sound (vibrancy of sound) depends on the sounded body's amplitude. Amplitude doesn't exert any influence on the sound's vibrancy.
Ana saz - a big saz (see: saz).
Analysis - (Greek: Analisis - analysis, division into smaller divisions) it is the name given to the esthetic and technological analysis of musical work in the field of musicology. It also means the laws and regulations applicable to musical theoretical learning of a musical work. In the musicology, a musical work is analyzed like a special artwork. The system composed different musical elements. Each of the elements (including melody, harmony, contrapunctus, etc.) each may be the subject of a separate analysis (analysis of harmony, polyphonic, rhythm). The musical work is analyzed and investigated from points of view of historical recourse, objective learning and esthetic assessments, as an artwork, from point of view of composer's style, from point of view of performing, and from point of view of effect on audience.
At the time of interpretation of vocal music, one of the main conditions is establishment of a relationship between the context and the music. The analysis of folkloric and professional music is also carried out in the same way. The interpretation of a musical work as a field of professionalism is carried out on the basis of composition logics, historical forms of the music genre and separate performance forms of the music, and manner of learning the historical-cultural context of the relevant musical genre. A number of local and foreign experts and specialists have been dealing with the learning and analysis of Mugham.
Anthology - collections consisting of the ancient literature works, especially epigrams. Presently it means a published collection of poems or other pieces of writing an anthology of European poetry or a similar collection of songs or musical compositions issued in one album. "Azerbaijani folk music anthology".
Arabi - this melody in the spirit of Jengi performed by Ashyg Adham Arabov is played in the Misri tune from "becha parda". The famous singer of this melody is Ashyg Shehadet Gulmammadov from Aghstafa region.
Aran gozellemesi - Ashyg music. Other names: "Sharabani", "Flower of Childir" and "Tiringi". It is played in the form of poem "goshma" in the main tune.
Arazbari - the percussion mugham exists in the folk traditions' professional music. It is known that Uzeyir Hajibayli wrote the symphonic work "Arazbari" based on this mugham. As to the ashyg melody "Arazbari" it is called "Ashyg Arazbari" and begins from general root and the sprout keys.
Archive - (Lat.: archivum, Greek: government office). An independent administration (or organization, enterprise and services of administrations) where historical documents or records are kept, the archives carrying out their activity in Azerbaijan preserve the documents related to the life and works of the Azerbaijani well-known culture and art figures and musicians, as well as their manuscripts. The Azerbaijani National Archive Administration, the State Literature and Art Museum named after Salman Mumtaz, Azerbaijani State Archive of Sound Records, materials kept in the Azerbaijani State Film-Photo Archive serve of valuable sources to study the works of the mugham masters.
Arpeggio - (Ital.: arpeggio – in a way played in a harp)
|– the notes of a chord played in rapid succession, either ascending or descending.|
|– Arpeggio is used in front of the corresponding chord , or by a vertical wavy line expressed with the same word (chord).|
Art - a collection of important arts that contains music, fine arts, theater, cinema and such other fields. Art plays an important role in the development of culture.
Aruz verse (or Aruz prosody) - the verse forming the basis of Eastern (including Azerbaijani) classical poetry. Aruz was created and systematized for the first time by Arabian poet and scientist Khalil ibn Ahmad in Basra city in the VIII century, later on, it was used in many countries of Muslim East. The first work in Aruz verse in Turkish poetry was the poem of "Kutadgu biling" ("The book giving happiness") written by Yusif Khaj Hajip in Kashghar city in the XI century. Aruz verse has very complex verse system. Here, the main condition is not the equal number of syllables, but the arrangement of long and short syllables in the lines by certain rules. Therefore, sometimes one of the lines consists 11, the second one consist of 10 and the third one consists of 9 syllables in the same poem written in aruz verse. Poems written in aruz verse can be in different forms depending on the size of lines, means of expression of words and the form of arrangement of syllables and these forms differing from one – another are called "behr".
Aruz verse has 19 behrs: tevil, kamil, seri, munserih, mutegarib, rejez, remel, hezej, medid, besit, vafir, khefif, muzare, mugtezeb, mujtes, mutedarik (the above mentioned 16 behrs are used in Arabian poetry), jedil, gerib (these behrs were created by other nations using aruz). Many of these behrs are found in Azerbaijani poetry. Nizami, Khagani, Fuzuli, Seyid Azim, Sabir and others among classic Azerbaijani poets created very valuable works in aruz verse. Especially, poets such as Fuzuli, Sabir made aruz Azerbaijani verse by moving away from Arab-Persian words that include in the verse language of Azerbaijan by using aruz and burden the language and achieved "to write most of their works in a simple, clear language". Azerbaijani poets Aliagha Vahid, Bakhtiyar Vahabzade, Suleyman Rustam and others continued their way. The poetical basis of mughams is formed by gezels written in aruz verse (see: verse).
Ashyg - People artist amongst the Caucasus people, as well as in Turkey and Southern Azerbaijan. Ashygs, called by the Oghuz Turkic people as dede, ozan, varsag and later yanshag are considered followers of the people artists, ashygs create works expressing thoughts and feelings of the people, their life and struggle and perform these works with the accompaniment of saz (see: saz). The ashyg creative activity includes and synthesizes the fiction, music, components of the folk theatre and the dance, where the music plays an outstanding role. The people ashygs have created joyful and sad melodies in the spirit of heroism, as well as for dance, which are called between rounds havajat (melodies).
Ashygs, beginning from the lyric forms, such as: bayati, gerayli, goshma, divani, mukhammas, Tajnis (see: bayati, gerayli, goshma, mukhammas, Tajnis) ending with large volume tales created and create various works in different literary forms. The ashygs have played decisive role in formation of the samples of ozan literary activity, i.e. "Oghuzname's", including "Book of Dada Gorgud", "Koroglou", "Ashyg Garib".
Ashyg's - 1. People singer, poet, storyteller, authors of lyric and epic tales, executor, creator of ashyg melodies, 2. Tuning peg where the strings of saz are connected (see: saz).
Ashyg art - one of the most ancients fields of the Azerbaijani music culture of folk traditions. The ashyg art synthesizes organically the music, poetry, dance, pantomime and the elements of theatre. By the artistic features, the ashygs are divided into three groups: 1. The master ashygs (see: master ashygs) – they combine in themselves the mastery talent of poet and composerbeing the most striking features of the synergetic ashyg art, perfect singer, executor, actor and even the skills of dancing (plasticity) and mainly the experienced and wise mastery (as a teacher); 2. The performer ashygs – (performer ashygs) include the art masters immortalizing the ancient saz traditions and spreading out it amongst the people. They have rendered outstanding services in preserving and development of the Azerbaijani folklore. 3. Poet-ashygs. – (see: poet-ashygs, people ashygs) – the art masters creating the poetic samples of the ashyg art and rendering unparalleled services in the folk art. The poet-ashygs are referring always on the traditional melodies in the poetry art that promotes the development and spreading out of the mentioned dpoems by the performers-ashygs through executing and singing. Transmission of traditions in the ashyg art by means of folkloric principles includes the main aspects. The ashygs, not limiting themselves to perform the well-known works add to them new features, work out and imrpove them and thus, became one of their authors. The main genres of ashyg art are eposes and ashyg melodies. The ashyg art being a professional art kind is transmitting from the master ashygs to their learners through verbal learning. By these means, ashyg schools and ashyg milieus were formed in various territories (see: milieus). The ashyg schools such as, Goycha, Borchali, Tabriz, Urmiya, Tovuz-Gazagh, Gadabay and Shirvan, transmitting their own ancient traditions to the generations reached them to date. We know that there is an organic commitment between ashyg and mugham arts. In the course of historical evelopment process these two arts were interconnected and interacted. Mughams were used in melodies performed by ashygs and the including of ashyg melodies to the repertoires of the singers and formation of the percussion mugham based on ashyg melodies prove once again the depth of the ties between these two arts.
Ashyg environment - the folklore life of the ashyg art in the local area is determined as the ashyg milieu. The reason is that the definition "ashyg milieu" represents a wide and complex component. It includes besides the ashyg performing tradition embracing by some historical and geographical limits (for example, Tabriz-Garabagh, Urmiya, Shirvan, Ganjabasar, Garabagh, Nakhchivan etc.), the cultural-historical position of the referred region, its ethnographic living mode and the its sensitivity range as regards literary expressions.
Ashyg melodies - a vocal-instrumental music genre, which is a product of ashyg creative activity. There are about 80 traditional ashyg melodies used and improved with the time in the ashygs' repertoire and their numerous versions. By their content character, the ashyg melodies may be in heroic, lyric, satirical and admonishing spirit. For example, in the melodies, such as, "Koroghlu", "Misri" and "Ayag Divani" are expressed the features of courage, bravery; in the melodies "Gozelleme", "Goychegulu" - playfulness, cheerful mood, in the melodies "Yanig Karami" and "Dilgami" (see: Koroghlu, Gozelleme, Goychegulu, Misri etc.) – the lyric love feelings and motives of sorrow and longing. The structure of ashyg melodies is based on the alternation of instrumental and vocal-instrumental episodes and as a rule, is began with the instrumental prelude. The ashyg melodies are very rich and colorful by their melodic and rhythmic features. They use widely the melodies of the nature of recitative-declamation and a song. The repetition of the same loudness sound, repetition of music motives and music phrases in a form of variation and the movement of melodies with the same sequence on the stage points include the ashyg melodies typical features. The rhythmical features of ashyg melodies are related to the poem's form and rhyme. The modern ashygs use widely the poetry forms, such as, gerayli, goshma, tajnis, divani, mukhammas and so on. Depending on the characteristics of the literary text and melodies, several poems may be read on one melody. The names of ashyg melodies are related as a rule to the poetry forms ("Gerayli", "Tajnis", "Mukhammas and so on"), to the tale's images ("Koroghlu", ""Karami" etc."), to the names of places where they were created ("Nakhchivani", "Sharili" etc.), the names of ashygs ("Jalili", "Bahmani", "Dilgami", "Urfani" etc.). The ashyg melodies are performed with the accompaniment of saz and balaban (a kind of wind instrument). The basis point of ashyg melodies stems from the structure of a saz. Their basis is the magham "Shur". It is to be noted that there are melodies composed on the maghams "Segah" and "Bayati-Shiraz". The harmonic basis of ashyg melodies includes the chords arising from the root of the saz. Amongst them (see: saz's roots) "Garachi root", "Dilgami root" and "Ayag Divani root" are the key chords. The ashyg melodies were spread out widely and loved by the people and resulting from the listener's demand were included to the repertoire of singers. The singers prefer as a rule to sing the playful and lyric ashyg melodies and they execute these melodies in an original style; for example, the melodies, such as, "Gula-gula", "Nazlana-nazlana" etc. has assumed distinctive features in the creative activity of singers. The basis of percussion mughams, one of the widely spread out genres of mugham art includes also the ashyg melodies. For example, "Arazbari", "Ofshari", "Garabagh shikastasi", "Kasma shikeste" etc. being products of ashyg activity and then evolving to the singer's activity were deeply rooted here.
Ashyg poets - the matter is that they don't create any new melodies, but they play on saz and sing, at the same time they create art works. Often the above mentioned poets obtain fame across the nation only as the people poet and therefore they called "people poets".
Ashyg school - this definition is related specifically to the tradition of singing and is one of the leading directions in the structure of the milieu. Each school has its own performing style and repertoire traditions that are differing one from another by some characteristic signs. From this point of view, the ashyg school is divided into several branches and each of these schools is realted to the name of master and the milieu. For example, the ashyg school of Shirvan had in 13-14-th centuries its own performing and saga repertoire. Dozens of saz masters, unknown presently to the art environment have played outstanding role in reaching the Shirvan ashyg traditions to the literary school level. The art masters, such as, Molla Gasim, Dada Karam and Dada Yedgar are considered the founders of Shirvan ashyg school. Later, ashyg Shakir Hajiyev, Hajali Hajiyev, ashyg Mammadagha and other masters were the masters of Shirvan ashyg school. Development and formation of Goycha ashyg school is related mainly to the name of ashyg Alasgar, Ag Ashyg (18-th century), followers of Ag ashyg – Ashig Ali (19-th century), Ashyg Alasgar, Ashyg Bashir, Ashyg Gurban, Asfyg Najaf, ashyg Abdulazim etc. the famous representatives of the same school may be referred on. And the Borchali ashyg school being shaped on the ancient traditions was developed thanks to the masters, such as Ashyg Huseyn Sarajli, Amrah Gulmammadov, ashyg Kamandar and other ashygs and they played outstanding role in reaching of the referred traditions of ashyg art to the modern time.
Ashyg-dervish (a wandering ascetic) - a professional artist combining in his activity the ashyg art with dervish art.
Ashyg tasnifi (national rhythmical melody) - there are a few ashyg tasnifs known as "Gamarjan", "Garagoz", "Garagiz bala" and "One night". The firs samples of this tasnifs are belonging to Ashyg Ali's activity. Ther poetic text is based to the classic poetic form as in the genre of tasnif.
Asli and Karam - is a love epos. U.Hajibeyli wrote the opera on the basis of this epos (The opera "Asli and Karam", 1912).
Atli (mounted) Koroghlu - it is called at the same time "Surutme Koroghlu" and "Koroghlu yerishi". Its is one of melodies related to the epos "Koroghlu. The common root is based on Garachi and the Shah perde roots and is sang with Gerayli.
Atustu - the second name is "Palann token". Is a sad melody, basing on the root of Chiban bayati is read in the poetic form of bayati.
Atustu Keremi - see: Arazbari Keremi.
Atustu Koroghlu - see: Basma Koroghlu, Jangi Koroghlu.
Avaz (Voice) - (Pers.: avazi-bam – bass, deep sound) 1. Performing of the music with a voice of songstress;
2. A note line pertaining to the singer party in the instrumental music;
3. Voice, sound.
Ayag - the definition "ayag" is used widely in ashyg music. It means ending and basis, foundation and support. Or, to express it in artistic language, it is a feet of a melody or melodies; here, the definition "ending" means a cadence. There are melodies in ashyg performing art "Ayag Jalili" and "Ayag divani". The word "ayag" has a role in the structure of the instrument saz. So, the definition "ayag" means here a place by which the arm of saz is fastened to the bowl, i.e. the last fret (cadence). The ninth fret in the arm of saz (see: tunes of saz, tune fret). The definetion "ayag" means to accompany himself in the course of performance after alighting on the fret. On what fret the ashyg begins, he alights on this fret at the end.
Ayag divani - the name of this melody is related to the name of the poetic form and the name of the seventh fret on the saz's arm. Its other denomination is "Osmanli divani" and "Bahri-tahvil". It is of jangi spirit and is based on the ayag divani tune. It is in the poetic form of divani.
Ayag mukhammas - other names include "Duvaqqapma" and "Toy akhiri". It is performed in the common tune, on Shah and Urfani frets. It is called "Orta Mukhammas".
Zindanda qoyub bülbülü, vermə qönçəni xarə,
Vəsfin yazılıb, yer üzündə oxunur bab-bab,
Gizli sirrlərini anlayıbdır bir neçə əhbab,
Qovrulmuş bağrım kimi, od üstə kəbab,
Ay dili şirin, ləbi şəkkər, dəhani qəndab,
Allahı sevərsən, danış görüm bir neçə cavab.
You are forbidden to keep in prison the nightingale and
to disgrace the bud,
You have been glorified and are read all over the world,
Some person already knows your few hidden secrets,
My heart is on fire as kabab on fire,
I call you, my darling
I can swear to the God, you have to answer my questions
Your answer is pleasant,
Bird is kept in the cage,
And your liver is a stone
You eyes are full in tears and
Your love is fire.
Ayag perde koku (Ayag fret tune) - the saz's ninth tune is called so, as it is used the "ayag fret" (see: saz tune).
Ayagli goshma - as in the other forms of goshma, the last hemistich of the next couplet rhymes with the previous lines. The first kind of goshma is met in the poem "Daimul-ovgat" by Khasta Gasim in 18-th century.
İki dərya xoş görünmür gözümə,
İki qırx dörd gəlməz ərin dizinə.
Xəstə Qasım, bu şeirinə, sözünə
Qazı, molla, müctəhidlər qaldı mat,
Two sea don't look me fine,
Two forty four are not on husband's knee .
Khasta Gasim, the poem that you have written
Has astonished the Kadi, mullahs, Mujtahids
Ayagli tajnis - by the formal signs, it is created on the basis of "Tajnis msutazad" and "Goshma mustazad".The first and the third hemistiches of the poem's first couplet are rhymed freely, the incomplete part of the 4-th hemistich with a part used in lieu of the second hemistich. The ayagli Tajnis is used amongst the people ashygs as "Tajnis mustazad".
Aşıq gərək bu meydanda bir qala!
Eşq odunu bir ətəklə, bir qala!
Ələsgərdi Xeybər kimi bir qala!
Bacara bilməzsən, dur, yerində kəs,
The ashyg has to stay alone in this square!
You have to stoke up the fire of the love!
Alasgar is a castle as Kheybar!
You are note able to cope with him?
Dont chatter vainly!
Azafli dubeyti - its other name is "Zulfugar dubeyti". Author of this melody is Mikayil Azafli. The saz tune is "Dilgami" and the poetic (poem) form is "Gerayli". It is performed by all ashygs. But the real name of the melody is "Zulfugar Dubeyti". It was created by ashyg Zulfugar. The matter is that ashyg Zulfugar lived before the time of Mikayil Azafli. As this melody was performed in accompaniment with the poem by Mikayil Azafli "Mature eagle", the real name was mispresented.