Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Badami - Commencing from the common tune and on the shah fret is performed based on the poetic form "goshma".


Badami shikeste - one of the ashyg son activity forms.


Baglama (riddle) - a victory scored by one of two ashygs being in competition. The riddle refers mainly to the poetic text (see: gifilbend - a kind of Azeri ashyg poems).


Bagdad dubeyti - Bagdad means the capital city of Iraq and "dubeyti" is a poetic form. It is performed on "Urfani" tune and in the poetic form "Gerayli".


Bahari - is based on divani tune, is performed on the shah fret and based on Gerayli poetic form. This melody was created by Ashyg Imran Hasanov.


Bahr - the arud rhythm, one of the classical Azerbaijani poem's measures is divided in several rukns and each rukn into several kinds that are called bahr. For example, the rhythms hazaj, rajaz and ramal are included to the circle of mujtalibe (see: aruz verse).


Bahmani - starts from the sprout fret referring to the tune Umumi (common), Garachi and Shah Perde (main fret).


Bakhshi - means a poet and singer in Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uygur, Turkmen and Karagalpag people. This term in Karakalpak and Kazakh people is used in the form of baksi. The Bakhshi's perform their songs in accompaniment of dutar, the stringed instrument.


Balaban - means a blowing music instrument, made from apricot tree or mulberry tree with a double flat reed mouthpiece passed through its head (therefore called regularly yasti balaban). There are 9 holes on its body (8 holes in the frontal and 1 – in the back part). It is the blowing music instrument spread out widely in Azerbaijan since the very ancient times.


Barmag (finger) - the smallest scores resulting from the individual creative activity of the performer playing on the stringed music instruments, very small, but finished instrumental episodes, small variations crated through improvisation.


Bash - the significance of the word "bash" used in the saz art includes "beginning, main and leading" and reflects the process of starting of any fragment or part. The term's function of beginning is confirmed by the names of the melodies: "Bash mukhammas", "Bash Saritel", "Bash divani" etc. the word "bash" assumes significant meaning in the structure of the instrument saz. So, the word "bash" means the head of the arm of saz, i.e. the part where the tuning pegs pulling its strings are located.
Bash divani - is related to the name of the second fret on the arm of the saz and the poetic form's denomination. It is used in the sense of "Beginning", "door of ashyg art" and "word of truth". Referring to the common and "Dilgam" scores starts from the main score and is sang based on Divani's/ Ashyg Kamandar was one of master performers of this melody.


Bash dubeyti - is sang in the poetic form gerayli beginning from the main fret with Dilgam score, lyrical from the melody point of view.


Bash mukhammas - "Bash" is the name of the second fret and the "mukhammas" – the name of the poetic form. It is sung in Dilgami score, on the Bash and Dilgami frets and in the poetic form of mukahmmas. This ashyg melody is met in the works by Ashyg Alikhan Niftaliyev and other master ashygs.


Bash mukhammas perdesi (Fret of bash mukhammas) - means the first fret on the saz arm (see: main fret).


Bash mukheyi - the second name is "Giz yeteri". It is sung in Dilgam score, on the main fret and based on goshma poetic form.


Bash perde (The main fret) - the beginning fret, the first fret on the arm of the saz (see: Bash mukhammes fret). It is called at the same time the fret of "Yaniq Karami", "Dilgami" and "Bash Dubeyti".


Bash Saritel - name of the melody, related to the name of the second fret on the arm of saz. It is sung in Dilgami score, on the main fret and based on gerayli poetic form. The first samples are met in the works by Misgin Abdal, Abbas Tufarganli, Khasta Gasim and Ashyg Valeh.


Bashlangij (beginning) - the part where the conflict being a basis of the plot is begun: moment of reference for the further development of events. The "bashlangij" (start) being prepared deeply from the exposition of the work is able to provide the narration with consistency and clarity.


Basma Koroghlu - other denominations: "atustu Koroghlu" and "Atli Koroghlu". It is one of the melodies "Koroghlu" performed on Jangi tune.


Basma mukhammas - is performed in the general tune and Shah and Urfani frets.


Bass (deep sound) - 1. Lower register;
2. Lower sound, intense sound, firm sound (bass, baritone);
3. the lowest string in the musical instrument UD (do 1).


Bass string - lower stringes, tune stringes.


Bayan - or Boyan, the legendary songwriter of the ancient Russia. The name of Boya is paid tribute in the "Saga about regiment of Igor" (12-th century), the outstanding monument of the ancient Russian literature. The word bayan is used in the Russian literature in the sense of "poet".


Bayati - one of the lyric genres of the Azerbaijani folklore. Is met in the artistic activity of classical and modern poets. The history of creation of bayati's is not exact. The history of literature contains many facts about existence of poets, who have written bayati; one of them was Sari Ashyg (17-th century). The bayati, included to the lyric genre, praises the thoughts about man's life and the society, love for the native lands, love, beauty and the nature. The form of bayati, which reflects an expression finished is consisting of 7 syllables and 4 hemistiches: So, the first, second and the forth hemistiches being rhymed, the third hemistich is released free. The first hemistich is begun as a rule by the expression "aziziyem" or "men ashyg".
Əziziyəm, gülən az,
Bülbül eylər gülə naz.
Dünya bir qəmxanadır,
Ağlayan çox, gülən az.

My darling you know that this is unjust world
Nightingale shows coyness to the flower.
This world is a House of grief,
Everyone is crying here.


Bayrami - the second name is "Gulabi", is in the spirit of gozelleme. It is sung in the main score, on the main fret and based on goshma poetic form.


Bayati perde (Bayati fret) - the seventh fret on the arm of the saz. It is a term used as a rule by ashygs of all regions (see: a half fret, shikeste fret).


Bayati tajnisler - by their formal features, the Tajnis's are arisen as a rule in a syllable division of eleven. Writing a poem in this kind of lyric genre requires extremely maturity, be aware of agile nature of words and finally the skill of expressing the difficult and tangled hemistiches for the readers and spectators with easy and simple words.
Aşıq, yarın gözü nə,
Mail oldum gözünə.
Çox da qıyğacı baxma,
Bais olar göz ünə.

My love, what are eyes of the lover,
I have fallen in love for her eyes.
Don't look aslant
Your eyes may cause voice…


Bazirgani - it is also called "Sovdegari", "Tajiri" and "Sarbani". This melody was created by Huseyn Javan. Referring to the common tune, it is sang in the main fret and based onm qoshma – the poem form. It is in a form and in the spirit of gozelleme.


Beche perde (Sprout fret) - literally it means "a young" fret, the tenth fret on the arm of the saz – the octave of the open fret (see: saz's frets).


Beche segir perdesi (Beche's segir fret) - the eleventh fret, the supporting fret of beche (sprout) fret (see: high-pitched tone of the main fret, planning frets).


Bedye bediyye - originates from the word (bedihe), i.e. witty. The poems performed by ashyg's and bediye experts are also included to this category.


Bekar - (Fr.: bécarre) being a sign of restoration returns the main stage after its increasing (sharp) or lowering (flat) to its previous state (see: alteration).


Benovshe (Violet) – 1. Is a melody created by ashyg Imran Hasanov. Ashyg Hashim Gubadli has also the melody with the same name. The "Benovshe" (Violet) by ashyg Hashim was not enviaged for a zourna (flute, pipe). It is a rhytmical melody, its poetic text belongs to ashyg Hashim.
2. One of the Azerbaijani dances is named also "Benovshe".


Bir gul - is a melody created by Ashyg Mahammad Rzayev performed in the common score.
Bogaz khirdaliqlari (Throat details) - the smallest voice expressions pertaining to the performing style of singers and ashygs as their personal creative product.


Bogaz perde (Bogaz fret) - see: beche (sprout) fret.


Borchali gozellemesi - it is called also "Borchali gaytarmasi". It is related to Borchali district of Georgia and is referred to the common tune. Starting from sprout fret, it is sang based on goshma poem form. The creation of the melody is referred to ashyg Shenliy. The original name of this melody is "Kohne (old) Gozelleme".


Borchali ashyg school - see: ashyg school.


Bourdon - (Fr.: bourdon - solid bass) 1. The bass stringes, not shortened while execution in the instruments with bow-string. It is not arranged in the fingerboard as a rule.
2. The continious sounding of the bass sounds in the musical instrument without interruption, very primitive form of the polyphonism. It is applied widenly in the folk performance art.


Boyuk (big) saz - means thge main saz, it has 8-9 stringes. It is sued during this times because of its big sizes (see: saz).


Bozugu Koroghlu - is used as "Tebil (drum) Jengi" and "Ottoman Koroghlu". It is a melody with Jangi spirit. The first samples are belonged to Ashyg Junun. Based to the frets of Common, Garachi and Shah perde (main fret) is read in the sprout fret and in the poetry form gerayli.


Bosh sim (Loose string) - open string (see: stringes of the saz).


Boy (Epos) - the name given to each of oghuzname's in the "Book of Dada Gorgud": "the epos of Dukha Goja and Deli Domrul", "the epos related to the death of Beyrek as a result of becoming ennemies of Ich Oghuz and Tash Oghuz" and so on.
Dada Gorgud arrives always at the end of the epos, plays qopuz, recounts the evnents inside the epos, said: "this oghuzname is dedicated to Beyrek" and closes the story with his blessings.
The eposes were certainly sagas created by the ozan (ashyg) and were executed under the melody of gophuz. As the phrase "Bugaj khan declares the story" acknowledges that sagas are stories related to the heroic deeds made by the separate brave men. With the time, these stories were called "Oghuzname's".
We know that the scholar Bartold has explained the definition "boy" (epos) in a sense of "tale or story". I.e.this word has meant the content of the "prosaic story" and the poem given herein üas expressed by the definition "soylama" (i.e. recounting a story). We know that E.Rossi has translated the word "boy" as "a story" and the expression "boy boylad;" – as "told a story".
The word "boy" immortalizes as a whole the spirit of the Oghuz Turkic language. 2. The heroic melodies during the ancient times.