Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Cadence - (Fr.: cadence; Ital.: cadenza; Lat.: cado – completeness) expression completing musical structure and accompanied with rhythmic stop. Cadence is also important for the division of a piece of music into parts along with being a significant complementary tool.
Types of cadence: Authentic cadence, unfinished cadence, plagal cadence, complete cadence, semi- cadence, broken cadence, simple authentic cadence, simple plagal cadence, complex cadence, incomplete cadance, false cadence.


Cadency - (Lat.: cadere; Ital.: cadenza – ending) 1. Extensive ending of improvisational nature of any part of virtuoso piece. It is performed by soloist in ensemble music without accompaniment. Cadency is applied in order to reveal the brightness of performance skills of soloist and it consists of difficult performance methods from technical point of view. Most of the time, it shows the brightest place in solo party, therefore, cadency is usually placed in the most tense moment, turning point of musical composition (in the form of sonata – before oda or reprise). Cadency is mostly formed with different passages reflecting free use of thematic motifs. Cadency were mostly written and improvised by performers until the II decade of XIX century.
2. Ending, completion of melodic or harmonic action; as in cadance.


Chanag (wooden bowl) - is prepared after crumbling the wood of the mulberry tree. Presently it is prepared as a result of connecting.


Character - it is the set of spiritual and moral characteristics of a person. Human image whose individual characteristics are described in a specific, comprehensive and brilliant way in artistic work is called character.


Chartoy Koroghlu - an ashyg melody, one of the "Koroghlu" melodies' range of Jangi spirit. It is sang basewd on gerayly poetry form beginning from beche perde.


Childir divanisi - this melody created by Ashyg Shenlik starts from Divani act in general tune.


Childir gulu - see: Arani.


Childir mukhammasi - this Ashyg melody in the spirit of "gozallama" (beautification) is played in Urfani tune, Shah parda in the form of mukhammas. The first examples are found in the creativity of Ashyg Shenlik.


Choban Bayati - ("Gaya bashi") is played based on bayatis beginning from "becha parda" in general tune.


Chords - (Ital.: accord; Fr.: Accord – compliance, harmony, concord; Lat.: accord - consent) means harmony created as a result of sounding of a few different sounds taken position in various pitches (no lesser than three) at the same time.
The chords are differing one from another by the quantity of sounds in their composition and the interval terms.
As a rule, the chords are of third structure, i.e. they are formed from sounds located in the third relations (for example, C, E , G; B, D, F – sharp, la; G, B, flat, D, F, la and so on)
The chord of the third composition are divided into the types, such as, three voices, seventh chord, chord of the ninth and so on and are differing by their form, structure, position, melodic aspects and harmonic function.
The tertiary chord is a basis for the harmony referring to the major and minor tonal system.


Chromaticism - (Greek: chroma – color) sounds with the same name, but locating in different heights coming together or being in sequence. The ancient Greeks compared 7 stages of diatonic scale with 7 colors of rainbow; and semi-tons were compared to the paints made of main colors.


Chukhuroba - other name for it is "Iravan's chuxur". This Ashyg melody in the spirit of "gozallama" (beautification) is played based on the form of poetry "goshma", starting from Chuxuru parda in Misri tune. The famous singers of the melody were Ashyg Huseyn Javan, Ashyg Amrah, Imran Hasanov, Niftali Suleymanov and Amrah Gulmammadov.


Classic - The great talented persons who have gained reputation among people are called classical artists. Sometimes, classic means ancient artists.


Coda - (Ital.: coda - ending) additional concluding episode used at the end of a piece of music. Usually, the main tune is strengthened and the elements of main theme are used (see: episode, tune).


Composer - (Lat.: Compositor – author, designer) means the author, creator of the music work. The composer and executor in the folklore are united in a unique image.


Composition - the structure of work, arrangement of its parts, organization of characters describing the life process given in the work and their relations, the manner of description of events. It is possible to achieve this in Ashyg music. For example, a composition can be formed from Ashyg melodies in the same tune.


Conception, image - it is one of the original creativity aspects of the human mind. It is related to imagination based on life experiences, observation of life events, and using all of them in creation of an image used as the core of an artwork.


Concert - (Lat.: concerto, Ital.: conserto, Germ.: konzert) agreement or accordance; competition. 1. Public performance of a piece of music at a special place.
2. Voluminous work of virtuous nature composed for orchestra with one or more soloists, solo performance without accompaniment or orchestra (without soloist).


Contact - (Lat.: Tactus - effect, contact) in musical measuring situated between two stresses which is repeated without interval. The boxes are separated from each other by use of lines. The structure of box is expressed on the basis of box size (meter). Types of boxes:
a) Simple boxes: has one-level stress. For example 2/4, ¾, 3/8.
b) Complex boxes: containing stresses of 2nd level or higher. For example 4/4, 6/8, etc.


Content and form - content is composed of life events that determine the theme or subject of artistic or literary work. Poet or writer perceive and describes these life events from a certain point of view and this point of view determines the idea of the work. Every piece of music has content and form.


Conflict - argument or collision forming the basis of the development of plot and struggle or fight of participants in artistic work. For example, the conflict in "Almaz" play by J.Jabbarli consists of fight between innovation and obsolescence in Azerbaijani village. Ashygs also use this word which has the meaning of disagreement or contradiction. It was also used in eposes. For example, conflict between Gara keshish and Karam in the epos "Asli and Karam".


Coordination, harmony - it means the harmonic coordination of voices with different pitches which results in nice melody.


Couplet - systeme of rhymers in athe poem, or the common intonation – two or more hemistiches connected one to another by their syntactical features. The poem couplets are different and various in the verbal and written literature. This diversity and many-colouredness depend not only on the number of hemistiches, but also the temper, measure and rhyme method of the hemistiches. The most common couplets in the Azerbaijani poetry are four, five and six couplets that were appeared in the different periods with new features in the creative activity of the poets.


Creative Ashygs - they are master Ashygs. They integrate some stories, create new stories and work like a composer and musician. They also have nice performance ability. They perform their own songs just like an instrumentalist.


Creativity - it means creation of a new form or genre quality not being existent earlier. Creativity me be related to all aspects of human life (science, production, art, political, etc.). The creation of Mugham music system is known as a form of creativity in the art.


Criticism - it is one of the main fields of literature. The written papers dealing with the contemporary literary processes, theoretical aspects of artworks or, in general, any literary work, and their analysis; the criticism has high importance in the literature. The style also is applicable to the musicology – musical criticism.


Culmination - (Lat.: culmen – peak) It is the highest point, peak of development in a piece of music or in its relatively completed part.
Musical means of expression take part in the formation of culmination and this can be achieved through the change in dynamics, trait, the rise of range etc. means. (see: Peak).