Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Magam - 1. It means "conversation, talk". Name given to the mejlis of stories and eposes in Azerbaijan in Caliphate period. 2. There is also "megam system" in music. Especially, this word referring to sound order of mughams is expressed as fret.


Mahni (Song) - 1. One of the oldest forms of lyric poem. 2. Poem created for reading it aloud. That's, the work created from the combination of poem and music. Song consists of some couplets, and these couplets end with chorus. Mostly, song is closely related to music and dance being created together with music melody by people. This genre is characteristic for Ashyg music. As, there are such Ashyg melodies that they are sung by "khanendes" as songs. For example, in "Inja gulu" melody in the words of M.Araz "Duman salamat gal", in "Orta shashangi" melody in the words of Ashyg Alasgar "Sari koynek" etc.


Major – minor fret system - the system of fret firstly based on the relations of three-part tonic of major and minor structured, several sounds and chord complexes;
Major –minor fret system is in harmony with melodic fret in the creativity of composer.


Mammadbaghiri - the melody is played in the poetry form of goshma starting from General tune, Garachi tune and Shah parda.


Mansiri - as the melody is in a sad mood, it is related to the name of Hallaj Mansur whose life ended in tragedy. It is played based on the poetry form of goshma starting from Garachi tune and Shah parda in general tune.


Mask, act - 1. It is a mask that the artist uses on his face.
2. It is a division or unit of a play, film, opera or musical theatre. The playwriting with 1 act or 3 acts shows that the drama formed of 1 or 3 stages or units respectively.
3. In music, it means the main standing point that the notes are changed.
4. In the mugham modal system art, is means gut fret and each of them have their own specific functional role. For example, in Rast and Shur modal systems the 4th act forms Maya (the main body of the music), etc.
5. It also means the gut frets on the fingerboard of a Saz instrument.


Masnavi - 1. It is one of the most common types of poetry, which lines rhymed in pairs, being more characteristic for epic poetry in Eastern literature. Usually, each verse of masnavi expresses a complete opinion. Poems written in this form are non –limited in volume and have a wide variety in terms of theme or topic. Change in rhymes from verse to verse enables the poet to express his/ her opinion more freely and widely. Khagani Shirvani and Nizami Ganjavi created works in the form of masnavi in Azerbaijan. There are examples of this genre in Ashyg poetry. 2. "Masnavi" is sung in "Shushtar" and "Humayun" mughams as a branch.


Measurement - it is scales used for determination powerfulness or weakness of the music pieces in the boxes. It is denoted by use of a fraction. The total number of the divisions is shown in the denominator and the performer's achievement is denoted in the nominator. For example: 2/4; 3/4; 4/4; 3/8; 6/8, etc.


Meddah - one of the names given to neggas and gissekhan, master artist who held tale and story mejlis in certain periods. Meddah means the persons praising or expressing warm approval. Meddahs were dealing with praising kings and rulers living at their palaces. The poets writing "medhiyye" (panegyric) are called meddah.


Medhiyye - it is one of the ancient types of poetry. Ancient and medieval poets wrote medhiyyes using artificial and luxurious words to praise certain persons, especially, rulers, kings and their families. Medhiyyas of Azerbaijani poets are mainly in the forms of gasida and mesnevi. Ashuds also sang medhiyyes.


Meistersingers - singer poets in Germany in XIII – XVI centuries. There were special schools that taught to write a poem and sing a song. As master Ashygs in Azerbaijan, the experienced Meistersingers also taught the secrets of their profession to young people at these schools. The poetry competition with the type of "deyishma" (kind of poem composed by Ashygs, literally, altercation) had special place in their creative activity.


Mejaz (Metaphor) - literary or artistic expression formed through the use of word or expression in other or indirect sense. It is formed by means of confronting two events that are similar to each –other according to any sign. Simple metaphors include - simile and epithet, and complex metaphor include metaphor, irony, exaggeration etc. This method of expression is also used in Ashyg literature.


Mejlis - one of the types of folk play; the name of a closed meeting held by Ashyg, neggal, dervish and such other artists at tea-houses, caravanserai and individual houses on the occasion of this or that significant event or for certain purposes.


Mejlisaghasi - the name given for the person who initiate or manage the mejlis of ashu, neggal and such other artists. The owner of mejlis also bears this name. Such persons are called as "meydanchi" in western region and as "serayi" in Baku.


Melisma - (Greek: melismos – singing by a special method) melodic turnings formed from moving around several sounds of melody, special signs showing decoration or ornaments.
Melismas are: grace note, gruppetto, mordent, double mordent, trill.


Melisma signs - Grace note has two types: long and short. 1. Long grace note – is written in the beginning of main sound as a small note and equals to the half of its length. 2. Short grace note – is called quick performance or play of one or more short sounds in the beginning of main note (see: trill, gruppetto, mordent).


Melodies related to the names of clan, tribe and generation - Bozughu, Garachi, Kurdu, Misri, Ovshari, Shahsevəni.


Melodies related to the names of girl beloved by ashygs - Susanbari, Garagoz bala, Gamarjan, Duymeli giz, Sarvan gizi, Sari giz, Susanbari, khanim Sallandi and Shahrabani.


Melodies related to the names of geographical locations - Agir sherili, Goychegulu, Borchali, Vanagzi-banagzi, Gazakh sabzasi, Garabagh yelpiyi, Garabagh sherilisi, Garabagh gaytarmasi, Garabagh yekpayi, Garachayi, Goyche gaytarmasi, Goychnin nadan balasi, Goyche gaytarmasi, Goyche melody, Daralayaz sherilisi, Iravan sherilisi, Istanbul, Kolani, Kolani beyler, Lachin, Teze Nakhchivani, Teze sherili, Sheshengi, gerayli of Sherili, Sherili yasti havasi, Yungul sherili.


Melodies related to people's welfare, ceremonies, dances - "Abi gobheri", "Ay bayram nadani" (Hey, holiday ignorant), "Garatel", "Godekdonu", "Bayrami", "Gule-gule" (Merrily), "Layla de layla" (Tell lullaby), "Nadan bala"(Impolite child), "Sarilig" (Sarılıq), "Chechengi", "Saritel", "Sarı yaylıq" (Yellow kerchief), "Chalpapag", "El toyunda" (At wedding) "Garachi"(Gypsy), "Yurd yeri"(Homeland), "Aghirlama" (Welcoming), "Boghma" (croup), "Qaytaghi", "Gaytarma" (Returning).


Melodies relating to poetic forms - the following melodies are classed as in this group: "Aran gozallamasi", "Ashıq Musa gozallamasi", "Basma mukhammas", "Bozughu garaylı", "Bahri divanisi", "Vaqif gozallamasi", "Qarabagh qafiyasi", "Qafiya", "garaylı", "Gozallama", "Gozallama qafiya", "Goycha garaylısı", "Goycha gozallamasi", "QoSha qafiya", "QoShayarpaq", "QoShma", "Gullu qafiya", "Dastani", "Jıghalı tajnis", "Divanı", "Dubeyt", "İran garaylısı", "Kohna gozallama", "Karam gozallama", "Kurdu garaylı", "Mina garaylı", "Mukhammas", "Sallama garaylı", "Tajnis", "SHahsevani", "Shirvan gozallamasi", "Shaqai garaylısı", "Shamkir gozallamasi", "Yurdyeri garaylısı", "Yastı mukhammas".


Melodies relating to the gut frets of Saz - Ayaq Divani, Orta Saritel, Bash Divani, Bash Dubeyti, Bash Mukhammas, Bash Sritel, Bash Srili, Zil Qaytaghi Orta Mukhammas, Orta Saritel, Orta Shrili, Pardasiz, and / or Bayrami.


Melody - (Greek: melody – sing a song: melos – song, ode – sing) 1. Song, melody; the structure formed by sounds having certain height, length and gravity (based on fret and meter) grouped consistently in a monotonous manner. It is an important means of expression that is able to reflect different images and moods forming the basis of pieces of music.
2. The most expressive sound in the music with homophone structure.
3. Conventional name of upper sound in harmonic works.


Merjani - the melody is played from Shah parda.


Mesel (Saying) - one of the types of folk literature. Widespread figurative expressions reflecting any life situations accurately are called sayings. Sometimes, Ashygs also use sayings in their eposes. Unlike proverb which is close to it, saying doesn't bear independent moralizing meaning, it consists of reflection of a certain event or situation in a figurative language.


Metaphor - it is one of the simple implications used in the poem and means the simile of an event, man or a context to another one well known to the audiences.


Meter - sequential alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables on a regular basis is called meter in music.


Meydan divani - (see: Ayag divani) "Bash divani" (or Main divani) is called "Meydan divani".


Meydan Koroghlu - it is played based on the poetry form of goshma from General tune, Garachi tune and Shah parda.


Meydan tasnifi - the other name of this melody created by Ashyg Akbar Jafarov is "Yortma tasnif". It is played based on the poetry form of goshma in Misri tune from Becha parda.


Middle gut fret - it is the second gut fret in fingerboard of Saz. It is the second gut fret in Ashyg Mirza Bayramov's fingerboard and the third one in Ashyg Qara Movlayev and Ashyg Shamshir Qojayev's fingerboards.


Mikheyi - 1. This melody is played based on the poetry form of goshma in Dilgami tune.


Mina gerayli - the melody is played based on the poetry form of gerayli starting from General tune, Garachi tune and Shah parda.


Minor fret - it is the 5th fret on the fingerboard. The word means short or minor fret and is and a chromatic fret used for lelismatic ornamentation of lower notes (see: blind fret, half fret, middle fret, silent fret).


Minstrel - a singer, player, actor, most of the time, poet in England and France in XIII – XIV centuries. Unlike troubadour and trouveres, not all the minstrels wrote a poem: they often sang the works of other authors. Minstrels sang songs, verse stories etc. with the accompaniment of music.


Mirze dubeyti - it is the variant of "Bash dubeyti". The melody is played based on the poetry form of gerayli starting from General tune, Garachi tune and Shah parda.


Mirze gozallamasi - this melody created by Ashyg Mirze Bayramov is also called "Toy gozallamasi" (literally, Wedding beautification). It is played in General tune, Bash and Becha parda.


Mirzejani - its other name is "Jovhari". The melody is played based on the poetry form of goshma starting from General tune, Garachi tune and Shah parda.


Misra (Verse) - one line of a poem taken separately is called verse.


Misri - 1. The name of Koroghlu's sword. 2. One of the forms of Ashyg's song creativity. According to the oldest Ashygs, the mighty power of Koroghlu's Misri sword is praised in this song. In addition, most of the time, the performance of the intonation of Bayati-Shiraz megam in Misri music and lyrical mood in Misri Ashyg vocal –instrumental genre seems to have been expressed very well. It is played based on the poetry form of goshma starting from General tune, Garachi tune and Shah parda.


Misri parda - the third parda in the arm of saz (see: lal parda, yarim parda, orta parda, kor parda).


Mizrab - it is also called "tazana" by Ashygs. Mizrab is used for sounding strings while playing in saz as in other stringed instruments. Tazana is plastic not hard in tar and saz unlike mizrabs of stringed instruments. Previously, saz's mizrab, that's tazana was being made of cherry tree bark. At present, it is made of capron (ust mizrab, alt mizrab, tremol mizrab, doyme mizrab, sinig alt-ust mizrab, surtme mizrab (literally, upper mizrab, lower mizrab, tremol mizrab, forging mizrab, broken top to bottom mizrab, friction mizrab).


Mordent - a rapid alternation of upper or lower sound between two sounds which have the same height is called mordent. It is marked with this sign: (written above the note) (see: melisma).


Motive - the main element of a piece of music. An important element of folklore plot. Secondary themes given in addition to main subjects in literary works are called motive.


Muamma - one of the most common artistic forms of classical Eastern poetry. Muamma can be called poetic riddle. This word means secret – that's, unknown. Ashygs also used the word "muamma".


Mugenni (Singer) - songster, khanende, the one singing aloud.


Muhakime (Debate) - it means talk, dialogue.


Mukhammas - it is one of the forms of lyrical poetry in Eastern medieval literature. It is a form of poetry of 5- 6 couplets each consisting of 5 lines and each line with 16 syllables. Sometimes, the number of these couplets reaches 10- 15. The pen –name of author is given in one of the lines of the last couplet. Most of the time, it is written in the subject of beauty and love.
Fələkdən gileyliyəm, mana günü qara verib,
Mömünü zəlil edib, suri günahkara verib,
Tərlanı sara yazıb, tər qönçəni xara verib,
Ələsgəri Məcnun edib, meylini dağlara verib,
Tərk edib ibadəti, bağlayır dastan gözələ.

I'm displeased with fate, as it has made my days black,
As it has humbled the believer, and gave all to a sinner,
As it has covered fresh bub with shame,
As it has turned Alasgar to Majnun, and tend to mountains,
As it has left worship, and written epos for beauty.


Murvati gerayli - one of the less used forms of poetry in Ashyg literature in Azerbaijan is murvati gerayli. However, the wording of Ashyg during performance is quite sweet. Murvati gerayli differs from other geraylis in terms of its form and structure only with its being formed as couplet (two lines).
Söylə, Löydənmi gəlirsən?
Yolarına qurban olum.
Ağcınqıldan gül dərdinmi?
Əllərinə qurban olum.
Daş bulaqdan su içdinmi?
Dillərinə qurban olum.
Bəzənibmi Tamaşalı?
Çöllərinə qurban olum.

Tell me, where you come from?
Let me be a sacrifice for those ways.
Have you plucked the flowers from Aghjingil?
Let me be a sacrifice for your hands.
Have you drunk water from spring?
Let me be a sacrifice for your words.
Have Tamashali dressed up?
Let me be a sacrifice for your steppes.


Musigar - 1. Blowing wooden musical instrument; 2. The name of the legendary bird which is the symbol of the art of music; 3. musician.


Music amateur talent activities - music creativity of persons who are not musicians (in non–professional level); it consists of vocal and instrumental music performers individually or collectively. Usually, it is realized with the creative initiatives of music lovers and fans at circles, associations and studios.


Music calendar - a calendar reflecting dates only related to the music world and remarkable events related to the biography of musicians. Sometimes, calendars related to a certain field of music in the special scope of theme are prepared.


Music education - the process of mastering knowledge and skills which are necessary for musical activity. The term music education also denotes the organization of music education system.
There are general and specific music education notions. General music education implies teaching of knowledge and skills for every person to be engaged in music in an amateur level. And this plays an important role in musical training of people. This process is conducted in secondary schools, children creativity centers and musical associations.
The main essence of special music education consists of teaching of special knowledge and skills at certain educational institutions under the guidance of teacher. Its main aim is related to the professional staff training in the field of music.
Special music education has three levels: primary, secondary and higher education. Certain music educational institutions function according to the every level: children's music schools, secondary music schools, higher music institutions. As a primary music educational institutions in Azerbaijan, there are many children's music school and art schools.
Secondary music education is conducted at music vocational schools functioning in large cities, Baku Music College named after A.Zeynalli and Secondary music school named after Bulbul.
Higher educational institutions: Baku Music Academy, Azerbaijan National Conservatory, as well as, Azerbaijan State University of Culture and Art, music faculties or schools of Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University and other universities.


Music sound - it is a sound with clearly expressed height and it can be determined with accuracy. The main constituent part of music; basic material for the creation of artistic music image. Music sound has certain height, timber and length.


Musical ability - person's having the ability to perceive music through hearing, understand its figurative meaning and express it.


Musical folkloristics - a branch of science dealing with the study of folk music in musicology. It deals with collecting, recording and noting folk music examples and study of their characteristic features of genre and musical language.


Musical form - the structure of a piece of music and interactions between its parts. Certain pieces of music were created and improved throughout the history of the development of the art of music.
The smallest constituent unit of form of music is motif. The succession of some motifs forms phrase – complete musical structure. Musical sentences are formed by the combination of phrases. The form of music formed from the reconciliation of sentences in a certain rate of cadency is called period.
Period is the smallest form of music expressing a comprehensive idea. Small pieces of music are composed in the form of period. At the same time, the composition of large pieces of music consists of periods. The most common forms in music: two- part form, three -part form, variation, rondo, sonata, fugue and there are also mixed forms that they combine the signs and elements of different forms (for example, rondo –sonata). There are also musical forms with free structures.


Musical performance - a special type of creativity; it requires special professional training, special knowledge in the field of musical culture, specific interpretation of meaning and artistic perfection level from musician.


Musician - professional persons engaging in a certain field of music (for example, composer, conductor, vocal or instrumental performance, music science).


Musicology - science about music: it includes the areas such as history and theory of music, music aesthetics, music criticism and folklore studies – ethnomusicology.


Mysticism - (Arabic: means the man who wears wool cloak) it is a mystic movement and school in Islam. It has been originated from Syria in 8th century and spread out in western countries, Spain, Azerbaijan, and Central Asia, India, Malacca, and Sumatra. The founder of Mysticism has been Zunnun al-Mirsi (4th Centruy) and Abu Abdullah al-Muhasibi. The Sufi puts high importance on the cognitive understanding the God by means of repeating songs and dances. The Sufi's way to God the 1st step is Shari'a (exoteric path), the second step is Tariqa (esoteric path), the third step is Marifa (final mystical knowledge, unio mystica) and the forth step is Haqiqa (mystical truth). Sufism has had several schools (doctrines).