Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Lachin gulu - this melody created by Ashyg Akbar is played based on the poetry form of goshma from Becha parda.


Lachini - it is played based on the poetry form of gerayli in urfani tune. The creation of melody is referred to Ashyg Junun.


Lal parda - (literally, dumb parda) 1. The third and fifth pardas in the arm of saz, it has the meaning of chromatic parda. This term is found in the creativity of Ashyg Talib Alasgar and Ashyg Teymur Huseynov (Shamkhor). (see: kor parda, yarim parda, orta parda, misri parda). 2. There is lal parda also in the instrument of tar.


Lalakhanum - this melody created by Ashyg Chobanoghlu is played based on the poetry form of goshma from Shah parda, General tune.


Laylay - one of the most common lyrical genres of folk literature. Most of the time, a complete poetic work consisting of 4 lines. Care and love of parents or grandparents for their children is reflected in laylays. These works created in simple and sincere language of the people mostly are sung aloud at the cradle. The following example is similar to bayatis in terms of form.
Laylay, beşiyim, laylay,
Evim, eşiyim, laylay.
Sən yat şirin yuxuda,
Çəkim keşiyin, laylay.
Balam, laylay, a laylay,
Gülüm, laylay, a laylay.

Laylay, cradle, laylay,
My all, laylay.
May you sleep sweet dreams.
I'll stand sentry for you, laylay.
My baby, laylay, a laylay,
My darling, laylay, a laylay.


Legend - one of the traditional genres in which fiction images of mythological character have the main part but similar to story in folk literature.


Leitmotif - the basic, leading and guiding motif of the work. This term has passed from literature to music. Leitmotif is the main word, main expression, sentence, artistic image or plot's branch that plays the key role to understand the work. That's, it is an element which incorporates most of idea - emitional burden of the work and is remembered for several times insistently in the work.


Libretto - it is a literary text written for large music plays such as opera, operetta, ballet. Brieft content or description of film scripts forming the basis of films is also called libretto. Literary text – libretto of "Koroghlu" opera by U.Hajibeyli was written on the basis of famous folk epos with the same name.


Librettist - The author of libretto.


Line, dashed line - (Germ.: Strich - line, dashed line) It is the performance style of the voice at the time of playing the instrument; the main Striches are Legato, Staccato, etc.


Low sound - 1. The thickest sound in the polyphonic music – bass sound; 2. Sound located in bottom in the dicrotic music.


Lower keynote (tonic) - the first step of the fret.


Lower mediator - pinching the strings on some musical instruments (saz, tar, ud etc.) from bottom to the up, sometimes is designated on the string as the assign V (see: saz).


Lower strings - they are called at the same time as "finger strings" or "soprano strings", as fingers are moving on these strings while execution. The tunes of these strings are unchanged (see: strings of saz).


Lower tetrachord - a tetrachord consisting of the first, second, third and forth step of any keys; a scale of four notes, the interval between the first and last being a perfect fourth.


Lyrical character - conventional literary term covering all works created by the poet: a complete idea is formed about the creativity of poet based on the lyrical character. This character is also found in a piece of music.


Lyrics - it is one of the main 3 types of literature – "Epic", "Lyrics" and "Dramatic". The most relevant and characteristic form of lyrics is poem. One of the oldest examples of lyrics is folk songs.