Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Okhshama - it is one of the forms of folkloric lyric poem in Azerbaijan. It may resemble to cradlesong from subject point of view but is quite different from cradlesongs. The cradlesongs are the plaintive songs sings by a mother at the cradle when a baby goes to asleep but okhshama is used by mother at the time playing with the baby when she / he is waked up. The Aylandirma (distraction) poems are similar to the okhshama form point of their subject and spirit.
Ağardı başım,
Yoxdu sirdaşım.
Bu balama qurban.
Göydəki quşlar bu balama qurban,
Yağan yağışlar bu balama qurban,
Kişnəyən atlar bu balama qurban...

My hair became white;
And I have no intimate to say my secrets.
All my relatives and brothers,
Be of my child's.
All birds on the sky,
The raining rain,
The neighing horses, all be for my son.


Okhuma, gina - it means the vocal signing art; it is one of the oldest version of musical signing. It is based on reflection of musical character and its artistic content by use of singer's voice.
The signing is in the form of solo (by single performer), ensemble (duet, trio, etc.) or chorus. The signing mainly is accompanied by musical instruments.


Ofshari - 1. It related to Afsharids dynasty and tribe. It also called "Afshari". Ashyg Qurbani is known the author of this melody. It is started on the general tuning, and Qarachi (Gypsy) and Shah (king) and gut frets, based on Qoshma poem.
2. The Ovshari is mentioned in the professional folkloric music journals. Among other music pieces related to Afsharids is "Kurd Ovshari (Afshari)" and "Ovshari (Afshari)" mugham divisions are related with the same name.


Olang - in the medieval era, it was the meetings formed for capping verses between boys and girls. Normally the capping verses between Ashygs are accompanied with fresh and cheerful music melodies. Such a tradition continues in some zones of Azerbaijan as a part of wedding ceremony music performance (including Fuzuli, Masalli, etc. districts).


Old gozallama (old beautification) - this melody is played based on the poetry form of goshma from Shah parda in General tune. One of the famous singers of the melody was Ashyg Huseyn Sarajli.
On fingers - the method of poetry writing method in the Turkish poetry. The number of syllables in each hemistich of the poem written by this method is equal and the stress was laid on the different places of the hemistich. By the number of syllables, the hemistiches may be from one to twenty syllables. The folklore in verse of the Turkish language speaking people, mainly is consisting of poems set on the fingers account (see: syllabic measure). In the modern poetry of these people the judge meter is the syllabic measure.


Opened string of Saz - the empty fret.


Opposition - it means the use of life events contrary to each other aiming to deliver the speech to the audience in more effective manner.


Oral literature (folklore) - a kind of the folklore, oral folklore.


Ordubadi - this melody is based on Qoshma melody.


Ornamental - (Lat.: Ornamentum - decoration, ornamental) the relatively smaller tones used for decoration of the main melodic line. The types of ornamental: passages, figurations, fiorituras, tremolo, vibrato, etc. In the Ashyg art, the Ashygs give similar character to the art by use of shaking the voice and trills.


Orta (Middle) - in Ashyg art, it means the main theme and central part of the melody. It means the point between the peak and base lines. The Orta Saritel (middle Saritel), Orta Mukhammas (middle Mukhammas) have been widely populated among Ashyg songs. The middle is also used in the structure of Saz instrument; the middle in Saz structure means the center point of fingerboard.


Orta kok (The tuning) - it means Tajnis or Urfani tunning (see: tuning the Saz).


Orta Mukhammas - it is an Ashyg melody based on a poem with 5 hemistiches.


Orta Sarıtel (Middle Saritel) - it is the third gut fret in fingerboard of Saz. This melody is based and performed on Urfani gut fret and Gerayli poem.


Ostinato - it is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in musical voice and / or the consistent repetition of a melody usually in the same pitches.


Othman Divani (A piece of a poem) - its other names are "Ayaq Divani", "Bahr Divani".


Othman bozugh - it is one of "Koroghlu melodies" group. It is performed in general tuning, Shah (king) gut fret, based on Qoshma poem.


Overtones - (Germ.: obertöne) they are additional sounds included in the fundamental frequency by use of vibration of string or air columns in the music instruments.
The overtone sounds over the fundamental frequency. The frequency of vibration is several times higher than the fundamental frequency.
The overtone changes the timbre of sound and the instrument. It adds the softness to the bass tones and sharpness and clang to the treble sounds.
Overtone level - Example


Ozan (Minstrel) - in ancient time, this name has been in use by Oghuz people for naming minstrels. Ozans also performed Saz in the events organized by Khaqans (kings). Ozans narrate the myths, history of heroes and tales by use of nice musical-poetic language. One of the reasons proving the fact that the Ozan art had been extensively widespread in Azerbaijan for the time being is that there has been a zone in Ganja City named Ozanlar (Ozans) which is called with the same name nowadays as well.