Presently, the erection of this monument is anappearance of the attitude
of the Azerbaijani people
to his historical past and culture.
İlham Aliyev


Gafiyasanj (literally, rhyme arranger) - a person who doesn't have poetry talent, only arranging rhymed lines or lines with very weak rhymes.


Gahramani - one of the most widespread instrumental forms in Ashyg creativity. Its measure is 2/4 and is in the style of vigorous and great. It awakens courage, dare and bravery mood of listeners. It is played by the group of zurna player. Gahramani is the vocal variant of the form of Ashyg music and it is sung by Ashygs playing it in saz. Its other name is "Hajari". The melody is played based on the poetry form of goshma from Shah parda and Garachi tune in General tune.


Gahraman (Character) - an image attracting special attention and playing main role in the development of plot with the features of bravery, heroism, courage, wit, talent, love and so on – either physical or moral force in literary work.


Galandari - the other name of melody is "Darvishi". It is played based on the poetry form of goshma.


Gamarjan - see: Ashyg classification.


Gapag (Lid) - see: deck.


Gara gafiye (literally, Black rhyme) - this melody is played based on the poetry form of goshma in General tune from Shah parda.


Gara Kehri - it is played based on the poetry forms of goshma and gerayli from Shah parda.


Garachi (literally, gypsy) - 1. One of the main tunes of saz. 2. Other names of the melody is "Dondarma Garachi", "El havasi" (literally, People's melody). It is played from Shah parda in general tune.


Garachi tune - the main tune of saz, it is related to the name of "Garachi" melody played in this tune. At present, "Garachi" melody is named as "EL havasi" (People's melody).


Garagoz (literally, black- eyed) - see: Ashyg tasnif.


Garagoz bala (literally, black-eyed baby) - see: Ashyg tasnif.


Garamani - the melody is played based on the poetry form of goshma starting from General tone and Shah parda.


Garatel (literally, black-haired) - see: Azafli dubeyti.


Garavilli - humoristic work in the folk literature of Azerbaijan. Usually, Ashygs telling tales and eposes and storytellers firstly tell a "garavalli" before beginning the performance of voluminous epic works with complex stories (tale, epos) or they tell "garavalli" in the middle of the conversation in order not to weary listeners, as well as, to attract their attention. Therefore, such works with the feature of relatively interlude are hilarious, heartwarming and entertaining in content.


Garibi - this melody is related to the epos "Ashyg Garib".


Gasida (ode) - it is one of the most common forms of lyric poetry. A particular event or person is praised in a grand way in gasidada. There are gasidas expressing public and philosophical ideas and giving the description of nature. Rhymes in gasidas that are larger from gezel in volume are similar to gezel: the first couplet is rhymed, the first line of next couplets is independent and their second lines are rhymed with the first couplet: aa, ba, va, qa etc. Depending on the content, gasidas can be called "fakhriyya, munajat, nat, madhiyya" etc.


Gayabashi - the formation of melody is referred to Ashyg Junun. It is played based on the poetry forms of goshma and bayati in Jangu, "At ustu" tune from becha parda.


Gaynatma (literally, boiling) - fast and rapid order of certain note in chanting performed by singer in the form of trilling.


Gaytaghi - 1. The other name of this melody is "Goycha's gaytaghi". It is played from Shah parda. 2. There is also dance music called "Gaytaghi".


Gaytarma (literally, returning, reflection) - its other name is "Borchali's gaytarma". The melody is played based on the poetry form of goshma starting from Garachi tune and Shah parda in General tune.


Gaytarma gerayli - Gaytarma gerayli is similar to geraylis with chorus in terms of form used in Ashyg literature. The sign of cross-rhyme within line is strong in gaytarma gerayli.
Öz əhdinə vəfalıdır,
Azərbaycan gözəlləri.
Gözəllərin zülalıdır,
Azərbaycan gözəlləri.
Olubdur dillər əzbəri...
... Cavan Hüseyn, de mərdana,
Fəxr eləsin ata-ana.
Şöhrəti düşüb cahana,
Azərbaycan gözəlləri
Olubdur dillər əzbəri.

They are faithful to their promise,
The beauties of Azerbaijan.
They are the basis of beauties,
The beauties of Azerbaijan.
They have been a reputation...
... Javan Huseyn, say with fortitude,
Let parents be proud.
Their fame spread everywhere,
The beauties of Azerbaijan
They have been a reputation.


Gazakh sabzasi - sometimes, this melody is called "Gilenar". This melody was created by Ashyg Amrah.


Gazal - it is one of the most common forms of lyric genre in Eastern poetry. Mostly, themes of love and beauty are used in gazal whose history goes back to ancient times. There are many gazals giving the description of nature with social and philosophical content. Gazal is closely related to Eastern music, especially mughams. Usually, gazal consists of 5, 7, 9 and more couplets. Among these, the first couplet is rhymed: aa, ba, va, qa etc. Sometimes, gazal is written with "radif". The author gives his pen-name in the last couplet. Nizami, Fuzuli, Sadi, Khagani, Shirvani and other classics wrote gazals in classical Eastern literature.


Genre - (Fr.: genre – style, kind, field, method) the type of a piece of music; it is determined on the basis of different features (structure, performer composition, character, performance environment etc.). Symphonic music genres: symphony, symphonic scale, symphonic mugham. Instrumental music genres: prelude, fugue, sonata, sonatina, ballada. Vocal music genres: song, aria, arioso, romance.
Azerbaijani music genres: mugham, color, tesnif, zerbi mugham. Azerbaijani folk music genres: "laylay" (lullaby), labor songs, yalli, dance, dancing.


Gerayli - 1. Gerayli melodies – there are the types of Shegat gerayli, Terse geyrali, Mina gerayli, and Shirvan's gerayli. It is one of the forms of lyric poems. It is in the style of folk poem, Ashyg poetry and syllabic verse: dealing about beauty, love, nature and friendship topics, it is differentiated with its simplicity and sweetness. Geraylis consist of 3, 5 and 7 couplets, and there are 8 syllables in every line. Rhyme and radifs are similar to those in goshma.
Qəm evində zar olalı,
Eşqə giriftar olalı,
Yarımadıq yar olalı,
Nə sən məndən, nə mən səndən.

Being bored at the house of grief,
Being seized in love,
Being lovers, we weren't happy,
Neither you nor me.

2. It is Ashyg melody in the spirit of "gozallama" (beautification). It is played based on the form of poetry of gerayli in general tune.


Gerayli dildonmaz - it is a form very rarely used in Ashyg poetry. It is only found in the creativity of Ashyg Alasgar. As selection of words, lining up letters in a poetical point is taken as a basis in such geraylis, such poems are uninspired in content in terms of mastery. The first and second lines are internal and cross-rhymed and the 3rd lines rhyme with the end rhymes of line in the 2nd and 3rd couplets of gerayli dildonmaz.
...Əziz ayə mümmayə,
Salsan sayə, bu məvayə,
Səbəb sənsən bu sevdayə.
Böyük ağa, sağa bax-bax!

...My dear, you,
If it'll be considered,
The reason of this love is you,
Great man, look to the right, look!


Gerayli rubai - one of the types of poems used very rarely in Ashyg poetry. It is a form of lyric poem with 8 syllables, 4 lines and single couplet. Ashygs called poem as gerayli for the numbers of syllables and as gerayli rubai for the number of lines and rhyme and that sounds quite correct for the content and form of poem.
Poet has come to us, =8
The one who has violated silence. =8
The one who has written =8
The works of afternoon at nights. =8


Gerayli with repeating hemistich - it's one of the mixed forms of Gerayli. Since the form of this poem has 5 hemistiches, it's called Mukhammas (quintets). The reason for such naming is that all the 5 hemistiches in each line are have rhyme just like Mukhammas (quintets).
Arpa çayı aşdı, daşdı,
Sel Saranı aldı qaşdı.
Sara gözəl, qələm qaşdı,
Apardı sellər Saranı,
Bir ala gözlü balanı...

The Aprachar River flooded;
And the flood took my Sarah away.
My Sarah is beautiful with nice eyebrows;
Flood took my Sarah;
A lovely grey-eyed daughter …

Gezishmek (Go about) - the method to diversify and repeat certain musical phrase in other variants in the process of performance in order to enrich it and go about in parda (see: phrase).


Gifilband - it is a type of poetry in Ashyg creativity. Most of the time, Ashygs express their knowledge and talant figuratively in gifilband that is in the form of goshma and divani. Gifilband is said in this way: when 2 Ashygs exchange bandy words, one of them tells one goshma gifilband and the other one "opens" that gifilband. The one who cannot "open" (that's, answer) the gifilband is considered to be loser.


Gilenar - the name of melody is "Gazakh's sebze". "Gilenar" is the "radif" played for it. This melody is played based on the form of poetry of goshma, starting from Main and Garachi parda in General tune.


Glissando - (Ital.: glissando; French: glissant – sliding) pass from one sound to other by sliding; sounding achieved by sliding the finger on string in many stringed instruments.


Gobustan shikastasi - it is said that it was created by Ashyg Bilal. The other name of this melody is "Galahangi". It is played from Becha parda in the spirit of Jangi.


Godekdonu - its other name is "Keveri". The name of melody is related to national ceremony. It is played based on the forms of gerayli poems starting from Shah parda, General and Dilgem tune,
Melodies related to the names of famous Ashygs "Ahmadi", "Ashyg Ali", "Arabi", "Huseyni", "Jalili", "Durakhani", "Bahmani", "Dilgem", "Heydari", "Durakhani", "Keremi", "Keshish oghlu", "Mammad Baghiri", "Mammad Huseyni", "Mansiri", "Mirzejani", "Nejefi", "Pashakochdu", "Sultani", "Urfani", "Khanchobani", "Summani", "Shamshiri".


Gol (part of epic) - 1. The parts of Azerbaijani folk epics that are closely related to one – another in content are called "gols" (literally, parts). Though it is the integral part of epic, this or that "gol" is played in separate as an independent work as it has a complete plot. There are "gol" (parts) such as "Crane curl", "Koroghlu and Bolu bey", "Hasan Pasha's coming to Chanlibel", "Arzurum visit" etc. in Koroghlu epic. 2. The word "arm" (in Azerbaijani: "qol") also refers to saz which is the main instrument of Ashyg music. There are "pardas" on the arm. The arm part of saz is connected to wooden bowl part through "becha" part. The wooden bowl part consists of three parts and nine side and rear parts which are called ribs. There are eight or nine string beggining from "Ashygs" on arm and chest part of saz to lower comb. The function of Ashygs is to keep the tune of strings in the same sound height. 18 – 26 pardas are fixed to the arm of saz which are placed in a certain distance and not equal to one –another. The surface part and rids forming the wooden bowl of saz are made of mulberry wood and the arm part is made of walnut wood. "Pardas" were being made of intestines in the past, but now they are made of kapron (see: the structure of saz).


Gopuz - The musical instrument of ozan, the ancestor of modern saz. It is ancient musical instrument which is considered to be the ancestor of saz (see: ozan).


Gopuzi ozan - or simply as "ozan", it is musical instrument named in music treatise called "Zubdatul- advar" referring to the XVI century.


Gopuzi rumi - stringed musical instrument. It is 5- stringed instrument similar to "ud".


Gosha yarpag goshma (literally, "double leaf" goshma) - it is mostly called "Internal rhyme" and "Hacha beyt" by Ashygs. Both lines, verses and also all couplets are cross–rhymed in "gosha yarpag goshma". That's, as several lines are rhymed among themselves, this rhyme is also expected between verses and coulets. Such goshmas are also called "Ayagli goshma" (literally, goshma with foot).
Dərmansız bimaram, yar intizaram,
Könül tutmur aram, səndədir, çaram,
Mən ki, günahkaram, nə qədər varam,
Qoy baxsın gözlərin, yar, üzmə-üzmə.

I'm waiting anxiously without remedy,
I'm thinking only about you, my remedy is you,
I'm guilty as long as I live,
Let your eyes look at me, darling.


Goshalig (Doubleness) - one of the methods of artistic expression, putting two stories (or persons, cases) front to front in a balanced manner through description. The most common forms of doubleness are: Thematic doubleness – here, stories or events that are close to each – other in terms of their contents are compared; sound doubleness – this type of doubleness appears in different forms in artistic language and lines begin with the same words.


Goshma - it is one of the most ancient and common lyrical forms of Azerbaijani poetry. Goshma consists of 11 syllables, 5-6 couplets and there are 4 lines in each couplet. Ashygs and poets, as a tradition, give their names or pen –names in the last couplet of goshma. The most skillful creators of goshma in Azerbaijani poetry is Vagif, Vidadi, Ashyg Alasgar, Zakir, S.Vurghun, M.Mushfig, O.Sarivelli and others.


Goshma mustazad - This form of goshma is found in the creativity of Khasta Gasim and other Ashygs. Here, the last lines of final couplets are rhymed with the previous rhyme.
Aşıq Ələsgərəm - soruşsan adım,
Huş başımdan gedib, yoxdur savabım.
Sözlə mətləb yazmaq deyil muradım,
Arifə eyhamnan yazıram rufat.
Qədrin olsun sat!

I'm Ashyg Alasgar ---- if you ask,
I've lost consciousness, I dont have good deed.
It is not my desire to write points in words,
I'll write for wise man with hint.
May your value be appreciated!


Goltuq sazi (Armpit saz) - see: jura saz.


Goycha Ashyg school - see: Ashyg school.


Goycha's dubeti - it is played based on the form of gerayli poem starting from Shah parda, in General and Garachi tunes.


Goycha's gozallama (beautification) - melodies related to poetic forms, saz melody referring to Goycha Ashyg environment. Its poetical text is goshma.


Goycha gulu (Goycha's flower) - it is played based on the form of goshma poem starting from Shah parda in general tune.


Gozallama (beautification) - 1. Name of one of the melodies related to poetic forms. Mostly, poet or Ashyg describes either beautiful girls and women, sometimes, or the beauty, wisdom and politeness of his lover and expresses his feelings of respect and love for them in "gozallama" (beautification) created in the forms of goshma and mukhammas. 2. Ashyg melody. "Gozallama" is played within the epose and in the form of an independent work. Its other names are "Old gozallama", "Aran's gozallama", "Shirvan's gozallama" and "Goycha's gozallama".
Yaraşır əndamına
Geyindiyin sarı, gözəl!
Yaradan verib sana
Belə ixtiyarı, gözəl!

It suits on you,
The yellow that you've worn, beauty!
God gave to you,
All this power and will, beauty!


Grace note - (Germ.: vorschlag – first stroke) one of the signs of melisma (decoration); it is written with small notes and quickly played being consisted of one or more sounds;its playing doesn't include in the size of square, but it becomes stable during play.


Gruppetto - (Ital.: gruppetto – small group) one of the types of melisma; sign. The sign Q written above the note shows that notes around it have been played sequentially in fast tempo.
wording Guba Karami - the melody is played based on the poetry form of goshma in general tune. Sometimes, Ashygs also call this melody as "Guba Karami".






Gullu gafiye (Rhyme with flower) - 1. Its first examples as a poetic form are found in the poem "Khosrov and Shirin" by N.Ganjavi in classical poetry and in the creativity of Gurbani and Ashyg Amrah (the text of epos "Amrah") in Ashyg literature. "Rhyme with flower" has also the names of "kelme kesti" (talk with), "dedim-dedi" (I said – she said), "dedim-soyledi" (I said – she told) among master Ashygs. It is the most perfect one among the performances of Ashyg Shamshir.
Dedim: Mən Qurbanam, yarın adına.
Dedi: Elə sənsən düşən yadıma.
Dedim: Mən ha yandım eşqin oduna.
Dedi: Şəmə yanan pərvanədir bu!

I said: I am sacrificed to the name of lover,
She said: It's you that I remember.
I said: I so suffered for love.
She said: This is butterfly burning for candle!

2. This Ashyg melody starting from Shah and Misri parda, in Misri and General, Garachi tunes is played based on the poetry forms of goshma and rhyme with flower.
3. There is an ancient folk song named "Rhyme with flower". It was firstly played by master singer Seyid Shushinski.


Gurbati - this melody is played from Main parda in general tune.


Gurtarajah parda (Ending parda) - the fourteenth and fifteenth pardas in the arm of saz. The name of the last parda.